Soil Correlates and Mortality from Giraffe Skin Disease in Tanzania

@article{Bond2016SoilCA,
  title={Soil Correlates and Mortality from Giraffe Skin Disease in Tanzania},
  author={Monica L. Bond and Megan K. L. Strauss and Derek E. Lee},
  journal={Journal of Wildlife Diseases},
  year={2016},
  volume={52},
  pages={953 - 958}
}
Abstract Giraffe skin disease (GSD) is a disorder of undetermined etiology that causes lesions on the forelimbs of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) in Tanzania, East Africa. We examined soil correlates of prevalence of GSD from 951 giraffe in 14 sites in Tanzania, and estimated mortality using 3 yr of longitudinal mark–recapture data from 382 giraffe with and without GSD lesions, in Tarangire National Park (TNP). Spatial variation in GSD prevalence was best explained by soil… 
Prevalence and histopathological characterization of Masai Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) skin disease in Tarangire-Manyara ecosystem, Northern Tanzania
TLDR
The findings suggest the involvement of fungal infection in GSD pathogenesis and recommend further characterization of the lesions using modern molecular techniques and culture to identify primary and secondary or opportunistic etiologies, and the order in which the pathogens occur in the lesions.
Giraffe skin disease: Clinicopathologic characterization of cutaneous filariasis in the critically endangered Nubian giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis camelopardalis)
TLDR
Lesions appeared to resolve to dormancy, with dormant lesions consisting of hairless plaques of hyperkeratosis with dermal scarring and residual inflammation, and Identification of potential insect vectors, long-term monitoring of GSD lesions, and evaluating response to therapy is ongoing in the efforts to help conserve the Nubian giraffe.
QUANTIFYING THE SEVERITY OF GIRAFFE SKIN DISEASE VIA PHOTOGRAMMETRY ANALYSIS OF CAMERA TRAP DATA.
TLDR
This study serves to demonstrate that camera traps presented an informative platform for examinations of skin disease ecology and predicted the proportion of the Ruaha and Serengeti giraffe populations with mild, moderate, and severe GSD.
The relationship between physical injury, body condition and stress-related hormone concentrations in free-ranging giraffes
TLDR
Combining an assessment of BC and analysis of individual stress-hormone levels can help improve health assessments in free-ranging giraffes and thus assist management decisions.
Country Profile United Republic of Tanzania Giraffe Conservation Status Report August 2020
  • Environmental Science
  • 2020
In 2016, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) completed the first detailed assessment of the conservation status of giraffe, revealing that their numbers are in peril. This
Long‐term persistence of wildlife populations in a pastoral area
TLDR
Overall, wildlife and livestock populations in Manyara Ranch appear to coexist over the 17‐year span, and this long‐term case study illustrates the potential of rangelands to simultaneously support wildlife conservation and human livelihood goals if livestock grazing is restricted in space, time, and numbers.
Movements and source–sink dynamics of a Masai giraffe metapopulation
TLDR
A regional metapopulation analysis to inform conservation management for Masai giraffes in five subpopulations defined by land management designations and highlights the importance of identifying source–sink dynamics among sub Populations for effective conservation planning and emphasizes how protected areas can play an important role in sustaining meetapopulations.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 20 REFERENCES
The Occurrence and Prevalence of Giraffe Skin Disease in Protected Areas of Northern Tanzania
TLDR
The disjunct spatial pattern of occurrence implies that environmental factors may influence GSD, and estimated occurrence and prevalence of GSD in six wildlife conservation areas of Tanzania.
Prevalence, disease description and epidemiological factors of a novel skin disease in Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) in Ruaha National Park, Tanzania.
TLDR
It was recommended carrying out more and elaborate studies to determine the aetiological agent (s) and identify the risk factors associated with the GSD as well as assessment of long-term population impact and design mitigation measures.
THE GIRAFFE OF NAIROBI NATIONAL PARK: HOME RANGE, SEX RATIOS, THE HERD, AND FOOD
TLDR
The giraffe of Nairobi National Park, Kenya have been studied for one year and the pattern on the neck used to recognize each individual does not significantly change in detail even over many years.
Spatial variation in giraffe demography: a test of 2 paradigms
Examination of spatial variation in demography among or within populations of the same species is a topic of growing interest in ecology. We examined whether spatial variation in demography of a
Using claw marks to study lion predation on giraffes of the Serengeti
TLDR
It is found that claw marks are an important source of data on interactions between lions and giraffes, indicating that lion predation risk may be heterogeneous within Serengeti.
Context‐dependent conservation responses to emerging wildlife diseases
TLDR
Stage-specific goals and management actions that minimize disease impacts on wildlife, and the research required to implement them are described, including limiting pathogen spread and preventing establishment.
Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife.
Infectious diseases in wildlife: the community ecology context
TLDR
It is argued that placing pathogens in an ecological context can contribute to the authors' understanding of emerging infectious diseases in natural systems and could provide important insights for the conservation of species, including many amphibians, that are threatened by disease outbreaks.
Prey preferences of the lion (Panthera leo)
TLDR
These methods are likely to be useful in assessing competition in sympatric communities of predators, cooperative hunting and predicting predator diets, and will allow us to move beyond descriptive dietary studies to improve the predictive understanding of the mechanisms underlying predator–prey interactions.
A Capture-Recapture Design Robust to Unequal Probability of Capture
TLDR
A design for long-term studies that is robust to heterogeneity and/or trap response of the capture probabilities is described and an example is given in detail to illustrate the methodology for biologists.
...
1
2
...