Soft machines: A philosophy of user-computer interface design

  title={Soft machines: A philosophy of user-computer interface design},
  author={Lloyd H. Nakatani and John A. Rohrlich},
  booktitle={CHI '83},
Machines and computer systems differ in many characteristics that have important consequences for the user. Machines are special-purpose, have forms suggestive of their functions, are operated with controls in obvious one-to-one correspondence with their actions, and the consequences of the actions on visible objects are immediately and readily apparent. By contrast, computer systems are general-purpose, have inscrutable form, are operated symbolically via a keyboard with no obvious… CONTINUE READING
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