Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex

  title={Soft-Tissue Vessels and Cellular Preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex},
  author={Mary Higby Schweitzer and Jennifer L. Wittmeyer and John R. Horner and Jan K. W. Toporski},
  pages={1952 - 1955}
Soft tissues are preserved within hindlimb elements of Tyrannosaurus rex (Museum of the Rockies specimen 1125). Removal of the mineral phase reveals transparent, flexible, hollow blood vessels containing small round microstructures that can be expressed from the vessels into solution. Some regions of the demineralized bone matrix are highly fibrous, and the matrix possesses elasticity and resilience. Three populations of microstructures have cell-like morphology. Thus, some dinosaurian soft… 
Analyses of Soft Tissue from Tyrannosaurus rex Suggest the Presence of Protein
The results indicate that collagen I, the main organic component of bone, has been preserved in low concentrations in these tissues and a possible chemical pathway that may contribute to this preservation is proposed.
Soft tissue and cellular preservation in vertebrate skeletal elements from the Cretaceous to the present
The results suggest that present models of fossilization processes may be incomplete and that soft tissue elements may be more commonly preserved, even in older specimens, than previously thought.
Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates
A selection of cases of soft tissue preservation in Mesozoic vertebrates are reviewed, chemical and environmental factors that may influence such preservation are examined, the potential of these fossils for high-resolution analytical studies are explored, and clarification of terminologies and criteria for determining the endogeneity of source and the degree of preservation are suggested.
Mechanisms of soft tissue and protein preservation in Tyrannosaurus rex
It is proposed that non-enzymatic crosslinking pathways likely contributed to stabilizing, and thus preserving, these T. rex vessels, and could play a crucial role in the preservation of other microvascular tissues in skeletal elements from the Mesozoic.
Soft Tissue Preservation in Terrestrial Mesozoic Vertebrates
Exceptionally preserved fossils—i.e., those that retain, in some manner, labile components of organisms that are normally degraded far too quickly to enter the fossil record—hold the greatest
oft sheets of fibrillar bone from a fossil of the supraorbital horn of the dinosaur riceratops horridus ark
Soft fibrillar bone tissues were obtained from a supraorbital horn of Triceratops horridus collected at the Hell Creek Formation in Montana, USA. Soft material was present in pre and post-decalcified
Preservation of Triceratops horridus Tissue Cells from the Hell Creek Formation, MT
VPSEM and cell isolation results from the Triceratops horn are described, which show remarkable preservation of individual bone osteocytes encapsulated within the stretchy sheets of fibrillar horn bone was observed, as were osteocytes positioned upon sheets of F2 bone adhering to permineralized vessels within the decalcified horn bone.
Organic preservation of fossil musculature with ultracellular detail
F fossilized musculature from an approximately 18 Myr old salamander from lacustrine sediments of Ribesalbes, Spain is reported, providing unequivocal evidence that high-fidelity organic preservation of extremely labile tissues is not only feasible, but likely to be common.
Gender-Specific Reproductive Tissue in Ratites and Tyrannosaurus rex
The presence of endosteally derived bone tissues lining the interior marrow cavities of portions of Tyrannosaurus rex hindlimb elements are reported, and it is hypothesized that these tissues are homologous to specialized avian tissues known as medullary bone.
Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million–year-old dinosaur specimens
It is found that putative biological structures can be well preserved over geological timescales, and their preservation is more common than previously thought.


Exceptional soft-tissue preservation in a theropod dinosaur from Italy
The Lower Cretaceous Pietraroia Plattenkalk (Benevento Province, southern Italy) has been known since the eighteenth century for its beautifully preserved fossil fishes. During Albian time (about 113
Blood vessels and red blood cells preserved in dinosaur bones.
The mineralization of dinosaur soft tissue in the Lower Cretaceous of Las Hoyas, Spain
The mineralized soft tissue of a dinosaur, only the second discovery of its kind is reported from the Lower Cretaceous of Las Hoyas, Spam. Cellular details of mineralized skin and muscle of
Preservation of the bone protein osteocalcin in dinosaurs
Preservation of OC in fossil bones appears to be strongly dependent on the burial history and not simply on age, and is a first step toward a molecular phylogeny of the dinosaurs.
Beta-keratin specific immunological reactivity in feather-like structures of the cretaceous alvarezsaurid, Shuvuuia deserti.
Morphological, microscopic, mass spectrometric, and immunohistochemical studies suggest that proteinaceous components may survive across geological time and support the view that alvarezsaurids (Shuvuuia and its allies) are either a lineage of birds or are a lineage phylogenetically close to them.
Age and growth dynamics of Tyrannosaurus rex†
  • J. Horner, K. Padian
  • Environmental Science
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2004
Histological analysis of seven individuals provided an opportunity to assess the age represented by the bone cortex, to estimate the average individual age of these skeletons, to determine whether they represented fully grown individuals, and to predict their individual longevity.
Heme compounds in dinosaur trabecular bone.
Six independent lines of evidence point to the existence of heme-containing compounds and/or hemoglobin breakdown products in extracts of trabecular tissues of the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex, with the most parsimonious explanation being the presence of blood-derived hemoglobin compounds preserved in the dinosaurian tissues.
Sauropod dinosaur embryos from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia
The first known unequivocal embryonic remains of sauropod dinosaurs—the only known non-avian dinosaur embryos from Gondwana—are described from a nesting ground in the Upper Cretaceous stage of Patagonia, Argentina and it is proposed that these specimens belong to the same sauroPod species.