Sodium salts in E-ring ice grains from an ocean below the surface of Enceladus

@article{Postberg2009SodiumSI,
  title={Sodium salts in E-ring ice grains from an ocean below the surface of Enceladus},
  author={Frank Postberg and Sascha Kempf and J{\"u}rgen Schmidt and Nikolai V. Brilliantov and Alexander Beinsen and Bernd Abel and Udo Buck and Ralf Srama},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2009},
  volume={459},
  pages={1098-1101}
}
Saturn's moon Enceladus emits plumes of water vapour and ice particles from fractures near its south pole, suggesting the possibility of a subsurface ocean. These plume particles are the dominant source of Saturn’s E ring. A previous in situ analysis of these particles concluded that the minor organic or siliceous components, identified in many ice grains, could be evidence for interaction between Enceladus’ rocky core and liquid water. It was not clear, however, whether the liquid is still… 
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A ground-based spectroscopic search for atomic sodium near Enceladus places an upper limit on the mixing ratio in the vapour plumes orders of magnitude below the expected ocean salinity.
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