Sodium, potassium, and target organ damage: a case for central hemodynamics.

  title={Sodium, potassium, and target organ damage: a case for central hemodynamics.},
  author={Julio Alonso Chirinos and Raymond R. Townsend},
  volume={56 4},
The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and sodium intake is well documented. Large observational studies have shown that sodium chloride (NaCl) intake is directly related to BP, whereas various interventional studies demonstrated a relationship between the reduction in NaCl intake and magnitude of BP reduction. Similarly, a low-potassium diet is associated with high BP and increased cardiovascular risk. In the Intersalt Study, urinary potassium excretion (a surrogate for intake) was… 
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Potassium in hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Abnormalities in renal dopamine signaling and hypertension : the role of GRK 4 Review
  • Medicine
  • 2011
This bibliography contains every paper annotated by reviewers; these references were obtained from a variety of bibliographic databases and published between the beginning of the review period and the time of going to press.


Effects of Potassium Chloride and Potassium Bicarbonate on Endothelial Function, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and Bone Turnover in Mild Hypertensives
It was demonstrated that an increase in potassium intake had beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, and potassium bicarbonate may improve bone health in individuals who already had a relatively low-salt and high-potassium intake.
Renal hemodynamics in essential hypertension. Racial differences in response to changes in dietary sodium.
Data demonstrate racial differences in the autoregulation of glomerular filtration rate in response to changes in dietary sodium, and suggest thatglomerular hyperfiltration in Response to a high salt diet may be a mechanism contributing to the racial disparity in hypertension-related renal disease.
Relationship Between Urinary Salt Excretion and Pulse Pressure and Central Aortic Hemodynamics Independent of Steady State Pressure in the General Population
In a population of African ancestry, urinary salt excretion is independently related to central and 24-hour PP independent of MAPc or diastolic BP, effects that are attributed to increases in both P1 and Paug but not to pulse wave velocity.
Effect of potassium on vasodilation to acetylcholine in essential hypertension.
In patients with essential hypertension and in normotensive control subjects, the effect of intrabrachial potassium chloride on forearm blood flow and the role of nitric oxide on potassium-dependent facilitation of acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in essential hypertension were evaluated.
Protective importance of the myogenic response in the renal circulation.
The following Brief Review summarizes the evidence that indicates that the renal autoregulatory response, primarily mediated by the myogenic mechanism, is largely responsible for protecting the kidneys from hypertensive injury of a severity sufficient to result in end-stage renal disease.
High Potassium Diet Augments Endothelium‐Dependent Relaxations in the Dahl Rat
It is suggested that high potassium diet enhances endothelium-dependent relaxations in Dahl rats at least in part independently of changes in blood pressure, and potassium may be important for its protective effect against stroke and renal damage in this animal model of hypertension.
Relationship between aortic stiffening and microvascular disease in brain and kidney: cause and logic of therapy.
The explanation given here accounts for greater and earlier vascular damage in diabetes mellitus and is similar to that given for vascular changes of pulmonary hypertension caused by ventricular septal defects and other congenital vascular shunts.
Impaired myogenic responsiveness of renal microvessels in Dahl salt-sensitive rats.
The data suggest that diminished myogenic responsiveness of AAs and ILAs in DS rats contributes to impaired renal autoregulation in this strain.
Prediction of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality with central haemodynamics: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Central haemodynamic indexes are independent predictors of future CV events and all-cause mortality andAugmentation index predicts clinical events independently of peripheral pressures, while central PP has a marginally but not significantly better predictive ability when compared with peripheral PP.
WNK kinases and essential hypertension
The role of WNK kinases in salt-sensitive hypertension within general hypertension is suggested, but future work is required to firmly establish the connection.