Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake fertilization: Review and summary of results

@article{Hyatt2004SockeyeS,
  title={Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake fertilization: Review and summary of results},
  author={Kim D. Hyatt and Donald J. McQueen and K. R. S. Shortreed and D. Paul Rankin},
  journal={Environmental Reviews},
  year={2004},
  volume={12},
  pages={133-162}
}
We reviewed 24 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake experiments that involved whole-lake fertilization with appropriate treatment and control years. We found that: 21 of 21 studies showed that fertilization was associated with increased chlorophyll a concentrations, 16 of 16 showed increased zooplankton biomasses, 16 of 16 demonstrated increased average smolt weights, and 11 of 13 showed increased smolt biomasses. Studies involving assessments of egg-to-smolt survival were rare, but… 

Figures from this paper

Changes in Algal Species Composition Affect Juvenile Sockeye Salmon Production at Woss Lake, British Columbia: A Lake Fertilization and Food Web Analysis
Abstract In recent decades, the abundance of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in the Nimpkish River watershed (Vancouver Island) has declined by more than 80%. To improve sockeye salmon abundance,
Density-Dependent Growth in Juvenile Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka)
TLDR
It is concluded that fry densities in the range commonly observed for British Columbia coastal lakes (i.e. 500-4000 ha -1 ) cannot cause density-dependent reductions in prey biomass or fry growth rates.
Growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in warm-temperate lakes: implications for environmental change
To predict potential effects of climate and anthropogenic impacts on fish growth, we compared growth rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in nine closely located warm-temperate lakes of
Long‐term zooplankton responses to nutrient and consumer subsidies arising from migratory sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)
TLDR
With increasing spawner densities across lakes, analysis of the size structure of subfossils in sediments revealed a strong decrease in body size of a main juvenile salmon prey item, consistent with an overriding eff ect of predation in lakes with high salmon den.
Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report
This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental
Relationships between habitat characteristics and breeding population densities in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)
We examine the importance of stream habitat characteristics in governing variation in spawning densities of sock- eye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) across 32 streams in the Fraser River Basin, British
Prey partitioning and use of insects by juvenile sockeye salmon and a potential competitor, threespine stickleback, in Afognak Lake, Alaska
TLDR
This study found significant differences in diet composition between sockeye salmon and threespine stickleback and the origin of their prey indicated that they also separated their use of habitat on a fine scale; however, the two species showed overlap in size selectivity of zooplankton prey.
Changes in the condition, early growth, and trophic position of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in response to an experimental aquaculture operation
TLDR
Lake Trout trophic position declined from 2002-2009, suggesting increased foraging on secondary vs. tertiary consumers, and a shift towards littoral energy use in the last year of aquaculture and for two years after the experiment, coincident with low densities of Mysis diluviana.
Proximate Composition and Fatty Acid Differences in Hatchery-Reared and Wild Snake River Sockeye Salmon Overwintering in Nursery Lakes
TLDR
The proximate and fatty acid compositions of sockeye salmon from presmolt releases were analyzed both at planting and at out-migration to assess their feeding success after overwintering in nursery lakes relative to that of overwintered wild fish.
Egg size and lipid content of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the wild and in captivity
  • T. A. Johnston
  • Environmental Science, Biology
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
  • 2018
TLDR
Examination of egg quality of a long-lived, iteroparous salmonid with respect to maternal traits and environmental conditions in wild and captively reared populations found variation was stronger and more consistent for egg size than for lipid content.
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 94 REFERENCES
Adding Nutrients to Enhance the Growth of Endangered Sockeye Salmon: Trophic Transfer in an Oligotrophic Lake
TLDR
It was concluded that metalimnetic fertilization could maintain the aesthetic value of these lakes while increasing zooplankton and fish production, and water transparency declined less than 15% compared with controls.
BRITISH COLUMBIA LAKE ENRICHMENT PROGRAMME: TWO DECADES OF HABITAT ENHANCEMENT FOR SOCKEYE SALMON
TLDR
Enhanced lake production has increased growth and survival of juvenile sockeye and increased smolt weights resulting in larger sockeye adult returns worth 10–20 million dollars per year to the Canadian economy, which is the best of currently available salmonid enhancement techniques.
Smolt-to-AduIt Survival Patterns of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): Effects of Smolt Length and Geographic Latitude when Entering the Sea
TLDR
Variations in smolt-to-adult survival (SAS) of sockeye salmon relative to smolt length and age and latitude of the nursery lake outlet were explored for six stocks in Canada, Russia, and Alaska and 12 Alaskan populations.
Responses of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to Fertilization of British Columbia Coastal Lakes
TLDR
Evidence is presented that smolt size changes in fertilized lakes will lead to increases in the harvestable surplus of sockeye adults by promoting both increases in marine survival and an earlier age-at-return to the fishery.
The Role of Anadromous Sockeye Salmon in the Nutrient Loading and Productivity of Redfish Lake, Idaho
TLDR
A simulation model was constructed for Redfish Lake, Idaho, to predict the dependence of lake production on nutrients from the watershed, precipitation, lake fertilization, and marine-derived nutrients from sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka which historically have reared in the lake.
Nutrient Treatment of 3 Coastal Alaskan Lakes: Trophic Level Responses and Sockeye Salmon Production Trends
Three coastal oligotrophic lakes with variable interannual production of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were treated with additions of fertilizer to increase zooplankton biomass for the purpose of
On the Relation of Adult Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Returns to Known Smolt Seaward Migrations
TLDR
Smolt size and numbers together account for about 60 per cent of the variation in actual number of adult salmon which arrive at the lake, and the residual variability could not be definitely related to available qualitative indices of fishing intensity or duration.
THE FERTILIZATION OF GREAT CENTRAL LAKE III. EFFECT ON JUVENILE SOCKEYE SALMON
TLDR
The fact that the sockeye did not appear to appreciably crop the high epilem­ netic concentrations of zooplankton during July and August 1970 may have been partly due to avoid­ ance of high temperatures by the fish.
Trophic-Level Responses to Nutrient Treatment of Meromictic and Glacially Influenced Coghill Lake
Prior to a 1990–1994 run decline, Coghill Lake consistently produced the highest single-system sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka catches in Prince William Sound. Although limnological and juvenile
Impact of fertilization and stocking on trophic interactions and growth of juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)
TLDR
It is shown that fry density and associated food web structure are major determinants of juvenile sockeye responses to fertilization and stocking and probably provides the first long-term experimental results linking limnological and nutrient - food web concepts to trophodynamics and productivity of juvenile Sockeye salmon.
...
...