Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake fertilization: Review and summary of results

  title={Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake fertilization: Review and summary of results},
  author={Kim D. Hyatt and Donald J. McQueen and K. R. S. Shortreed and D. Paul Rankin},
  journal={Environmental Reviews},
We reviewed 24 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) nursery lake experiments that involved whole-lake fertilization with appropriate treatment and control years. We found that: 21 of 21 studies showed that fertilization was associated with increased chlorophyll a concentrations, 16 of 16 showed increased zooplankton biomasses, 16 of 16 demonstrated increased average smolt weights, and 11 of 13 showed increased smolt biomasses. Studies involving assessments of egg-to-smolt survival were rare, but… 

Figures from this paper

Changes in Algal Species Composition Affect Juvenile Sockeye Salmon Production at Woss Lake, British Columbia: A Lake Fertilization and Food Web Analysis
Abstract In recent decades, the abundance of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka in the Nimpkish River watershed (Vancouver Island) has declined by more than 80%. To improve sockeye salmon abundance,
Density-Dependent Growth in Juvenile Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus Nerka)
It is concluded that fry densities in the range commonly observed for British Columbia coastal lakes (i.e. 500-4000 ha -1 ) cannot cause density-dependent reductions in prey biomass or fry growth rates.
Growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in warm-temperate lakes: implications for environmental change
To predict potential effects of climate and anthropogenic impacts on fish growth, we compared growth rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in nine closely located warm-temperate lakes of
Long‐term zooplankton responses to nutrient and consumer subsidies arising from migratory sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)
With increasing spawner densities across lakes, analysis of the size structure of subfossils in sediments revealed a strong decrease in body size of a main juvenile salmon prey item, consistent with an overriding eff ect of predation in lakes with high salmon den.
Kootenay Lake Fertilization Experiment, Year 15 (North Arm) and Year 3 (South Arm) (2006) Report
This report summarizes results from the fifteenth year (2006) of nutrient additions to the North Arm of Kootenay Lake and three years of nutrient additions to the South Arm. Experimental
Relationships between habitat characteristics and breeding population densities in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka)
We examine the importance of stream habitat characteristics in governing variation in spawning densities of sock- eye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) across 32 streams in the Fraser River Basin, British
Habitat Manipulations Confound the Interpretation of Sockeye Salmon Recruitment Patterns at Chilko Lake, British Columbia
An examination of metadata associated with a population of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) changed our interpretation of the purported benefi ts of salmon enhancement projects and improved our
Changes to the Productivity and Trophic Structure of a Sockeye Salmon Rearing Lake in British Columbia
Abstract In the 1990s, the returns of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to Long Lake in Smith Inlet, British Columbia, declined substantially. In 1997 the commercial fishery was closed, and it will
Influence of glacial flour on the primary and secondary production of sockeye salmon nursery lakes: a comparative modern and paleolimnological study
The increasing rate of glacier retreat and turbid glacial runoff can have a strong influence on freshwater ecosystems. Seton and Anderson lakes (British Columbia, Canada) are sockeye salmon
Prey partitioning and use of insects by juvenile sockeye salmon and a potential competitor, threespine stickleback, in Afognak Lake, Alaska
This study found significant differences in diet composition between sockeye salmon and threespine stickleback and the origin of their prey indicated that they also separated their use of habitat on a fine scale; however, the two species showed overlap in size selectivity of zooplankton prey.


Biological Responses of Sockeye Salmon to the Fertilization of Chilko Lake, a Large Lake in the Interior of British Columbia
Evaluated the response of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to a 5-year experimental fertilization of Chilko Lake, a large oligotrophic lake of the Fraser River, British Columbia watershed, and found that the mean productivity of fertilized broods was 73% higher than unfertilized brooding, but uncertainty surrounding this estimate was substantial.
Adding Nutrients to Enhance the Growth of Endangered Sockeye Salmon: Trophic Transfer in an Oligotrophic Lake
It was concluded that metalimnetic fertilization could maintain the aesthetic value of these lakes while increasing zooplankton and fish production, and water transparency declined less than 15% compared with controls.
Enhanced lake production has increased growth and survival of juvenile sockeye and increased smolt weights resulting in larger sockeye adult returns worth 10–20 million dollars per year to the Canadian economy, which is the best of currently available salmonid enhancement techniques.
Smolt-to-AduIt Survival Patterns of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka): Effects of Smolt Length and Geographic Latitude when Entering the Sea
Variations in smolt-to-adult survival (SAS) of sockeye salmon relative to smolt length and age and latitude of the nursery lake outlet were explored for six stocks in Canada, Russia, and Alaska and 12 Alaskan populations.
Responses of Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to Fertilization of British Columbia Coastal Lakes
Evidence is presented that smolt size changes in fertilized lakes will lead to increases in the harvestable surplus of sockeye adults by promoting both increases in marine survival and an earlier age-at-return to the fishery.
The Role of Anadromous Sockeye Salmon in the Nutrient Loading and Productivity of Redfish Lake, Idaho
A simulation model was constructed for Redfish Lake, Idaho, to predict the dependence of lake production on nutrients from the watershed, precipitation, lake fertilization, and marine-derived nutrients from sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka which historically have reared in the lake.
Simulated growth and production of endangered Snake River Sockeye Salmon: Assessing management strategies for the nursery lakes
Analytical results indicated that several lakes were suitable for receiving broodstock progeny and field experimentation and simulation modeling indicated that lake fertilization, coupled with a program of kokanee reduction, provided the management option most likely to enhance the survival of stocked juvenile sockeye salmon.
Nutrient Treatment of 3 Coastal Alaskan Lakes: Trophic Level Responses and Sockeye Salmon Production Trends
Three coastal oligotrophic lakes with variable interannual production of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka were treated with additions of fertilizer to increase zooplankton biomass for the purpose of
On the Relation of Adult Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) Returns to Known Smolt Seaward Migrations
Smolt size and numbers together account for about 60 per cent of the variation in actual number of adult salmon which arrive at the lake, and the residual variability could not be definitely related to available qualitative indices of fishing intensity or duration.
Consequences to Juvenile Sockeye Salmon and the Zooplankton Community Resulting from Intense Predation
The experimental results confirmed the empirical findings that, in rearing-limited lakes, smolt biomass production becomes a function of zooplankton biomass, and also confirmed the vast majority of curves fit to spawner-recruit data are not statistically significant.