Socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease: risks and implications for care

@article{Clark2009SocioeconomicSA,
  title={Socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease: risks and implications for care},
  author={Alexander Michael Clark and Marie Desmeules and Wei Luo and Amanda S. Duncan and Andy T. Wielgosz},
  journal={Nature Reviews Cardiology},
  year={2009},
  volume={6},
  pages={712-722}
}
Socioeconomic status (SES) refers to an individual's social position relative to other members of a society. Low SES is associated with large increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in men and women. The inverse association between SES and CVD risk in high-income countries is the result of the high prevalence and compounding effects of multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors in people of low SES. However, strong and consistent evidence shows that parental SES, childhood and… 

The association between socioeconomic status and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural-dwelling aging cohort of west Texas

TLDR
Data analysis showed that people in rural areas have relative lower socioeconomic status and higher prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and Logistic regression results demonstrated that both of SES and demographic indicators have significant effects on cardiovascular disease risk.

Socioeconomic status as a determinant of cardiovascular disease

TLDR
This thesis explores interventions to reduce socioeconomic inequalities both in cardiovascular risk factors and in CVD itself, and demonstrates that strong SES gradients in fatal CVD and in major risk factors for the disease still exist in contemporary Australian adults.

Childhood socio-economic conditions and risk of cardiovascular disease: results from a pooled sample of 14 011 adults from India

TLDR
Poor socio- economic conditions in childhood may contribute to the increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease among South Asians by raising their blood pressure, and improving socio-economic conditions for children in South Asia could provide major reductions in the burden of cardiovascular disease.

Association between cumulative social risk, particulate matter environmental pollutant exposure, and cardiovascular disease risk

TLDR
It is found that the association of increasing CSR with higher CVD and mortality risks is partially accounted for by exposure to PM 2.5 environmental pollutants.

Effect of Community Affluence on the Association Between Individual Socioeconomic Status and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors, Colorado, 2007–2008

TLDR
Living in high-affluence communities may mitigate the effect of poverty on CVD risk factors; the findings support the value of interventions that address social determinants of health.

Inequalities in health : social, biological, ethnic and life-course perspectives

TLDR
Results from studies included in this thesis show that some immigrant groups are at higher risk for health outcomes seen in different stages of the life course and that some ethnic groups are protected from the same.

Sex and ethnicity modify the associations between individual and contextual socioeconomic indicators and ideal cardiovascular health: MESA study.

TLDR
The strength of the associations between some SES markers and ICH differ between sexes and race/ethnic groups, and it is concluded that the strength of these associations may be heterogeneous by sex andRace/ethnicity.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 179 REFERENCES

Socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease risk prediction.

TLDR
If CHD risk is better estimated among the poor, it could lead to increased statin use for cholesterol reduction and aspirin use for CHD prevention among this population, which may reduce CHD disparities.

The Role of Conventional Risk Factors in Explaining Social Inequalities in Coronary Heart Disease: The Relative and Absolute Approaches to Risk

TLDR
Conventional risk factors explain a similar proportion of the social gradient in CHD, whether using the relative or absolute approaches to change in risk, in situations where the goal is to remove social differences in the distribution of risk factors.

Association of childhood socioeconomic status with subsequent coronary heart disease in physicians.

TLDR
Low childhood SES is associated with an increased incidence of CHD before age 50 years among men with high adulthood SES and this risk is not mediated by traditional risk factors for CHD.

Explaining the social gradient in coronary heart disease: comparing relative and absolute risk approaches

TLDR
Conventional risk factors explain the majority of absolute social inequality in CHD because conventional risk Factors explain the vast majority of CHD cases in the population, however, the role of conventional risk factors in explaining relative social inequality was modest.

Socio-economic status and blood pressure: an overview analysis

TLDR
A major challenge in reducing the SES gradient in BP is to understand and prevent the S ES differences in obesity, which are particularly large in women, and there is little evidence that adverse psycho-social factors associated with low SES cause chronic elevation in BP.

Evaluating the evidence for models of life course socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular outcomes: a systematic review

TLDR
This research reviewed 49 observational studies in the biomedical literature that included socioeconomic measures at a time other than adulthood as independent variables, and assessed subclinical CHD, incident CVD morbidity and/or mortality, and the prevalence of traditional CVD risk factors as their outcomes.

Socio-economic position and coronary heart disease risk factors in children and young people. Evidence from UK epidemiological studies.

TLDR
Of eleven CHD risk factors, consistent evidence concerning the association in child- and early adulthood with socio-economic position was evident for cigarette smoking, birth weight, adiposity (in young adults), height, and some aspects of diet, particularly fat and fibre consumption.

Social support and its relationship to morbidity and mortality after acute myocardial infarction: systematic overview.

TLDR
Recent evidence related to SSNs is reviewed to provide an update on the role of social support in cardiovascular disease-related outcomes and how cardiac rehabilitation programs and other extant prevention strategies can be better used to reduce mortality after myocardial infarction.
...