Social status and the secondary sex ratio: New evidence on a lingering controversy

@article{Ellis2002SocialSA,
  title={Social status and the secondary sex ratio: New evidence on a lingering controversy},
  author={Lee Ellis and Steven Bonin},
  journal={Social Biology},
  year={2002},
  volume={49},
  pages={35 - 43}
}
Abstract Because women are more likely than men to use social status as a criterion in mate selection, evolutionary theory has led to the hypothesis that higher proportions of males will be born to parents of high social status than to parents of low status. To date, the research that has tested this deduction has not provided consistent support. This could be partly due to the small sample size in several of the studies. The present study tested the hypothesis using 6 different social status… Expand

Topics from this paper

Parental Status and Differential Investment in Sons and Daughters: Trivers-Willard Revisited
According to the Trivers-Willard (T-W) hypothesis there is an interaction between individual status and investment in offspring such that high-status individuals invest more in boys, and low-statusExpand
Parental status and gender preferences for children: is differential fertility stopping consistent with the trivers-willard hypothesis?
TLDR
The results show no support for the Trivers-Willard hypothesis on a wide range of different status indicators and future research on the stated hypothesis should focus on physiological rather than behavioural mechanisms. Expand
Boy or girl: gender preferences from a Darwinian point of view.
  • L. Cronk
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Reproductive biomedicine online
  • 2007
This article reviews evolutionary biological studies of sex-biased post-natal parental investment that may be relevant to the issue of preconception gender selection. The focus is on tests of theExpand
Sociosexually unrestricted parents have more sons: A further application of the generalized Trivers–Willard hypothesis (gTWH)
TLDR
It is predicted that parents with unrestricted sociosexual orientation have a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio (more sons) and one standard deviation increase in unrestrictedness of soci homosexual orientation increases the odds of having a son by 12–19% in the representative American samples. Expand
Violent men have more sons: further evidence for the generalized Trivers-Willard hypothesis (gTWH).
  • S. Kanazawa
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 2006
TLDR
It is predicted that violent parents have a higher-than-expected offspring sex ratio (more sons) and battered women, who are mated to violent men, have significantly more sons than daughters. Expand
Testing the Trivers-Willard Hypothesis on Polish kings and dukes
Abstract The Trivers-Willard Hypothesis (TWH), frequently investigated by evolutionary psychologists, states that human beings may have evolved to produce a greater number of sons when having a highExpand
The Effect of a Child's Sex on Support for Traditional Gender Roles
We examine whether sex of child affects parents' beliefs about traditional gender roles. Using an improved methodological approach that explicitly analyzes the natural experiment via differences inExpand
Beautiful British Parents Have More Daughters
TLDR
The analysis of the prospectively longitudinal National Child Development Study in the United Kingdom replicates earlier findings with an American sample and confirms the generalized Trivers-Willard hypothesis that physically attractive parents have more daughters. Expand
Beautiful parents have more daughters: a further implication of the generalized Trivers-Willard hypothesis (gTWH).
  • S. Kanazawa
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of theoretical biology
  • 2007
TLDR
It is predicted that physically attractive parents have a lower-than-expected offspring sex ratio (more daughters) and, if beautiful parents have more daughters and physical attractiveness is heritable, women should gradually become more attractive than men. Expand
Socioeconomic status and sex ratios at birth in Sweden: No evidence for a Trivers–Willard effect for a wide range of status indicators
This study examines if there exists a positive association between socioeconomic status and the proportion of male births in humans, as proposed by Trivers and Willard in 1973, using individual‐levelExpand
...
1
2
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 60 REFERENCES
Variation in offspring sex ratio in women of differing social status
Abstract Since Trivers and Willard first postulated 15 years ago that offspring sex ratio might be adaptively manipulated by parents of mammalian species as well as hymenoptera, evidence has beenExpand
The Trivers–Willard hypothesis of parental investment: No effect in the contemporary United States
The Trivers–Willard hypothesis (TWH) predicts that parents will bias their sex ratio toward sons when in good condition and toward daughters when in poor condition. Many human studies have tested theExpand
Reconsidering the null hypothesis: Is maternal rank associated with birth sex ratios in primate groups?
  • G. Brown, J. Silk
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 2002
TLDR
Meta-analysis techniques are used to evaluate claims that nonhuman primate females facultatively adjust the sex ratio of their progeny in relation to their own dominance rank in a uniform way and indicate that presently the null hypothesis that maternal dominance rank is unrelated to birth sex ratios cannot be rejected. Expand
Waiting for Trivers and Willard: do the rich really favor sons?
TLDR
Weak support for the T-W effect is found among families where fathers were best educated, where a greater proportion of first-born boys are breastfed longer than girls, while the opposite trend is observed among families with fathers with lowest levels of education. Expand
Social and regional fluctuations in the secondary sex ratio in the Federal Republic of Germany
The study of the sex ratio among newborn children over a period of two years in the city of Kiel shows that even today there are still substantial differences in the sex ratio where stronglyExpand
Sociobiology, Status, and Parental Investment in Sons and Daughters: Testing the Trivers‐Willard Hypothesis1
While some dismiss sociobiological theories as untestable, post hoc explanations, this article argues that sociologists should instead increase their efforts to identify and engage those theoriesExpand
Sex-biased investment in nonhuman primates: can Trivers & Willard's theory be tested?
Abstract The study of how parents divide investment between sons and daughters has become one of the most popular areas of discussion in evolutionary biology. Trivers & Willard (1973, Science , 179 ,Expand
Constraints in the Evolution of Sex Ratio Adjustment
TLDR
This work uses meta-analysis to test the role of two constraints in the evolution of sex ratios in birds and wasps and shows that mechanisms of sex determination do not necessarily constrain the Evolution of sex ratio adjustment, and parental ability to predict their offsprings' environment influences the evolutionof sex ratio patterns across taxa. Expand
An analysis of the sex ratio and occupational class in Japan
TLDR
Investigation of the effect of social class on the secondary sex ratio in Japan has revealed that the association of birth order and paternal age with the sex ratio is relatively consistent among different occupational classes while that of maternal age varies substantially among occupational groups a significant negative regression on maternal age being observed in agricultural workers. Expand
The Effect of Polygyny on Sex Ratio at Birth
Ethnographic data from Kenyan communities show that the sex ratio at birth is influenced by the rate and timing of coitus which is itself affected by the form of marriage. This situation leads toExpand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...