Social influence: compliance and conformity.

  title={Social influence: compliance and conformity.},
  author={Robert B. Cialdini and Noah J. Goldstein},
  journal={Annual review of psychology},
This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to… 

Communication and normative influence: An introduction to the special issue.

In recent years we have witnessed a resurgence of interest in the study of normative influences. The multitude of scholars who approach the topic from a variety of disciplinary perspectives widely

Compliant Sinners, Obstinate Saints: How Power and Self-Focus Determine the Effectiveness of Social Influences in Ethical Decision Making

In this research, we examine when and why organizational environments influence how employees respond to moral issues. Past research proposed that social influences in organizations affect employees'

Social Proximity and the Erosion of Norm Compliance

We study how individuals' compliance with norms of pro-social behavior is influenced by other actors' compliance in a novel, dynamic, and non-strategic experimental setting. We are particularly

Conforming to Collective Action: The Impact of Rejection, Personality and Norms on Participation in Protest Activity

Social norms guide humans’ everyday behavior, and previous research has shown that social norms consistently predict some forms of political participation. Failure to conform to norms may lead to


In this research, we examine when and why organizational environments influence how employees respond to moral issues. Past research has proposed that social influences in organizations affect

Preschoolers' conformity (and its motivation) is linked to own and parents' personalities

This is the first study to take an individual differences approach to developmental conformity and suggests that social engagement (extroversion) is an important factor in conformity.

Cultural Variation in Reactions to a Group Member’s Vicarious Choice and the Role of Rejection Avoidance

The mechanism behind cultural differences in choice is related to variation in strength of the motivation to maintain social approval, and this research investigates consequences of an ingroup member’s vicarious decision for the entire group.

Social Influence Online: The Impact of Social Validation and Likability on Compliance

Text-based communication via the Internet has provided new opportunities to study social influence and persuasion. Specifically, Guadagno and Cialdini (2005) contend that the effectiveness of social

A Re‐Explication of Social Norms, Ten Years Later

We revisit some ideas from our previous article on social norms by conceptualizing norms as dynamic entities that both affect and are affected by human action; elaborating on the distinction between



Deviance Regulation: A Theory of Action and Identity

The authors propose a behavioral decision theory relevant to the maintenance of desirable identities. The theory, termed deviance regulation theory (DRT), predicts that actions translate into

A Focus Theory of Normative Conduct: When Norms Do and Do not Affect Behavior

In three experiments, respondents’ behavior conformed to the dictates of a relevant norm (the norm against littering) only under conditions of normative focus. This relationship held true across

Attitude change: persuasion and social influence.

  • W. Wood
  • Psychology
    Annual review of psychology
  • 2000
This chapter reviews empirical and theoretical developments in research on social influence and message-based persuasion, and considers how attitudes are embedded in social relations, including social identity theory and majority/minority group influence.

Compliance with a Request in Two Cultures: The Differential Influence of Social Proof and Commitment/Consistency on Collectivists and Individualists

University students in Poland and the United States, two countries that differ in individualistic-collectivistic orientation, indicated their willingness to comply with a request to participate

Social norms and the expression and suppression of prejudice: the struggle for internalization.

The authors reconceptualized the source of motivation to suppress prejudice in terms of identifying with new reference groups and adapting oneself to fit new norms, and found that high suppressors are strong norm followers.

Perceived consensus influences intergroup behavior and stereotype accessibility.

Two experiments tested the hypothesis that learning that others share one's intergroup beliefs influences intergroup attitudes and behavior as well as stereotype representation, and demonstrated a potential mechanism for such effects by showing that learning about whether others shared one's stereotypes influences the accessibility of those stereotypes and related stereotypes.

The Psychology of Legitimacy: A Relational Perspective on Voluntary Deference to Authorities

  • T. Tyler
  • Psychology
    Personality and social psychology review : an official journal of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc
  • 1997
Evidence from studies of authorities in political, legal, managerial, educational, and family settings is drawn on to explore why people view as legitimate and voluntarily defer to group authorities, suggesting that authorities draw an important part of their legitimacy from their social relationship with group members.

Conceptualizing and Measuring a Power/Interaction Model of Interpersonal Influence1

In response to new theoretical conceptualizations (Raven, 1992, 1993), an instrument was developed to measure 11 bases of power, the original 6 French and Raven (1959; Raven, 1965) bases of power,

Proposal of a four-dimensional model of social response.

A new response model is proposed and it is demonstrated that a minimum of 4 dimensions is necessary to adequately provide for such influence phenomena as conformity, minority influence, compliance, contagion, independence, and anticonformity in a single model.

The impact of guilt and type of compliance‐gaining message on compliance

Consistent with Cialdini's Negative State Relief Model it has been established repeatedly that targets of compliance‐gaining attempts comply with a request to help more frequently when those targets