# Social force model for pedestrian dynamics.

@article{Helbing1995SocialFM, title={Social force model for pedestrian dynamics.}, author={Helbing and Moln{\'a}r}, journal={Physical review. E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics}, year={1995}, volume={51 5}, pages={ 4282-4286 } }

It is suggested that the motion of pedestrians can be described as if they would be subject to ``social forces.'' These ``forces'' are not directly exerted by the pedestrians' personal environment, but they are a measure for the internal motivations of the individuals to perform certain actions (movements). The corresponding force concept is discussed in more detail and can also be applied to the description of other behaviors. In the presented model of pedestrian behavior several force terms…

## 5,118 Citations

### Computer Simulations of Pedestrian Dynamics and Trail Formation

- Engineering
- 1998

A simulation model for the dynamic behaviour of pedestrian crowds is mathematically formulated in terms of a social force model, that means, pedestrians behave in a way as if they would be subject to…

### Simulations of Pedestrian Dynamics and Trail Formation

- Engineering
- 1998

A simulation model for the dynamic behaviour of pedestrian crowds is mathematically formulated in terms of a social force model, that means, pedestrians behave in a way as if they would be subject to…

### A modified social force model for crowd dynamics

- Physics
- 2017

Researchers introduce a self-slowing mechanism to gradually stop a pedestrian when he is approaching other pedestrians and introduces the dynamic respect factor into the self-stopping mechanism based on the density of the pedestrians to make the model even more realistic.

### Humanlike behavior model with probabilistic intention

- BiologySIGGRAPH '13
- 2013

This work has shown that SFM is one of the most suitable models to simulate the motion of pedestrians and there are several extensions to simulate pedestrian behaviors in large spaces by applying some rules to SFM (e.g., [Pelechano et al. 2007]).

### New Pedestrian Model Based on a Social Force Model with Sub-goals

- Computer ScienceJ. Comput.
- 2019

A new pedestrian model is proposed that precisely simulates the avoidance behavior so as to realize the pedestrians' walking action by introducing the concept of sub-goal and new force in order to solve this problem.

### Implementation Issues of Force Based Pedestrian Motion Models

- Mathematics
- 2015

A very simple mollification is proposed so that the dynamic properties of the original many-body system are conserved and it is shown that it is insufficient to remove the typical but undesirable circular movement of pedestrians moving towards a target.

### Field based model for pedestrian dynamics

- Physics
- 2018

Numerical experiments indicate that the model can be calibrated to reproduce a fundamental diagram that matches an empirical one proposed by Weidmann, and prove the model to be a useful tool for study of pedestrian dynamics.

### The effect of social roles on group behaviour

- Physics
- 2016

In a recent series of papers, we proposed a mathematical model for the dynamics of a group of interacting pedestrians. The model is based on a non-Newtonian potential, that accounts for the need of…

### A new collision avoidance model for pedestrian dynamics

- Engineering
- 2015

An optimization-based model for the avoidance of collisions is proposed, where the social repulsive force is removed in favor of a search for the quickest path to destination in the pedestrian’s vision field, which means the pedestrians can actively avoid collisions.

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