Social biology and sex ratios of the eusocial gall‐inducing thrips Kladothrips hamiltoni

@article{Kranz1999SocialBA,
  title={Social biology and sex ratios of the eusocial gall‐inducing thrips Kladothrips hamiltoni},
  author={Brenda D. Kranz and Michael P. Schwarz and Laurence A Mound and Bernard J. Crespi},
  journal={Ecological Entomology},
  year={1999},
  volume={24}
}
1. Thrips comprise the only order besides Hymenoptera where females are diploid and males are haploid. This makes them useful insects for studying the roles of kin selection and ecology in social evolution. 

Life history of Kladothrips ellobus and Oncothrips rodwayi: insight into the origin and loss of soldiers in gall‐inducing thrips

TLDR
The life history of two solitary, gall‐inducing thrips and Oncothrips rodwayi was investigated, and data for solitary and eusocial species from previous studies were re‐analysed.

Social biology and sex ratios in the gall-inducing thrips, Oncothrips waterhousei and Oncothrips habrus

TLDR
A comparison of the proportion of the gall occupied by brood in O. waterhousei and another eusocial galling thrips, Kladothrips hamiltoni, suggests that local resource competition is higher in K. ham Miltoni, which might partly explain the lack of sex ratio bias in soldiers of the latter species.

The Evolutionary Ecology of Eusociality in Australian Gall Thrips: a ‘Model Clades’ Approach

TLDR
Analysis of the associations between genetic and ecological traits that resulted from the social-adaptive radiation of gall thrips with soldiers provides two main insights: first, fewer matings by foundresses, and less mating after dispersal, result in stronger local mate competition, higher relatedness (and a higher inbreeding coefficient) among soldier females, and a stronger female bias in dispersers.

Gall‐induction by an Australian insect of the family Thripidae (Thysanoptera: Terebrantia)

Leaf‐fold galls induced by Cyrilthrips cecidis gen. nov. et sp. nov. on Austrosteenisia blackii (Fabaceae) in eastern Queensland, Australia, involve either single or double folds. Single‐fold galls

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TLDR
The first life history data for Oncothrips morrisi, a species in a clade of haplodiploid, Australian gall-inducing thrips that has a micropteran fighting morph in the first generation of the gall, is presented, and selection to defend one's offspring may have promoted the evolution of soldier-like morphology and behaviour.

Split sex ratios and virginity in a gall‐inducing thrips

TLDR
These data provide the first empirical support for the constrained sex allocation model of Godfray in the gall‐inducing thrips, Kladothrips rugosus, which has been predicted in haplodiploid populations with high proportions of reproductive virgins.

Intersexual sibling interactions and male benevolence in a fig wasp

TLDR
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Advances in Insect Physiology

The evolution of soldier reproduction in social thrips

TLDR
This is the first study to analyze the social-evolutionary trajectories of reproductive, behavioral, and morphological differentiation in the context of a species-level phylogeny and suggests that this difference in evolutionary routes to eusociality between taxa with soldiers andTaxa with foraging workers was driven by a weaker trade-off between helping and reproducing, and a greater ability of the helpers to withstand reproductive domination, in taxas with soldiers.

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TLDR
Four species in three genera of Phlaeothripidae are now known to induce phyllode galls on Australian Acacia trees, and four of these in two genera produce soldiers, which have enlarged fore legs to defend their gall from invaders.

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The presence of eusociality is reported in a second haplodiploid insect taxon, the order Thysanoptera, which provides remarkable new opportunities for analysing the causes of the evolution of eUSociality.

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TLDR
It is implied that high relatedness and inbreeding are important for the evolution and form of social behavior in Australian gall-forming Thysanoptera.

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TLDR
The results indicate that female fig wasps adjust the sex ratio of their offspring in response to both the intensity of proximate local mate competition and the level of inbreeding in the population.

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TLDR
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This article is presented to make our tiny thrips better known—to show what thrips really are, to explain which ones are harmful and which ones are beneficial, and to introduce the many thrips that

Phylogenetics of social behavior in Australian gall-forming thrips: evidence from mitochondrial DNA sequence, adult morphology and behavior, and gall morphology.

TLDR
The phylogeny implies that soldiers originatedonce or twice early in the history of this clade, that soldiers were lost once or twice, and that soldiers evolved from winged dispersers rather than from nonsoldier within-gall reproductive offspring of foundresses.