Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach.

  title={Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach.},
  author={Robert E. Kraut and R. E. Johnston},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
  • R. KrautR. Johnston
  • Published 1 September 1979
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Did smiling evolve as an expression of happiness, friendliness, or both? Naturalistic observation at a bowling alley (N — 1,793 balls) shows that bowlers often smile when socially engaged, looking at and talking to others, but not necessarily after scoring a spare or a strike. In a second study, bowlers (N =166 balls) rarely smiled while facing the pins but often smiled when facing their friends. At a hockey game, fans (N = 3,726 faces) smiled both when they were socially involved and after… 

Tables from this paper

Sociality of Solitary Smiling: Potentiation by an Implicit Audience

Ss viewed a pleasant videotape either: (a) alone, (b) alone but with the belief that a friend nearby was otherwise engaged, (c) alone but with the belief that a friend was viewing the same videotape

Spontaneous facial expressions of happy bowlers and soccer fans

These findings question the common assumption that smiles are an indicator of happiness per se, and support the alternative hypothesis of a more complex and indirect relationship between smiling and happiness.

Sociality Effects on the Production of Laughter

The results provide further support for sociality effects, and the situational demands faced by participants may be a better predictor of facial displays than level of sociality.

Why are you smiling at me? Social functions of enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles.

Results demonstrated that perceivers did indeed spontaneously attend to smile type, especially in situations where issues of trust or cooperation were made salient, and this sensitivity had an impact both on the evaluations of the target individuals and the cooperative behaviour of individuals towards those displaying enjoyment and non-enjoyment smiles.

Forms and social signal value of smiles associated with pleasant and unpleasant sensory experience.

Episodes of facial displays involving the zygomatic action (AU12: lip corner pulling or smiling) were selected from a large sample of children (n = 95) exposed to pleasant and unpleasant odours in

Laughing, Smiling, and Talking: Relation to Sleeping and Social Context in Humans

The propabilities of laughing, smiling, or talking during a given hour and in various social environments were investigated by having undergraduate college students record their performance of these

Nonverbal display of emotion in public and in private: self-monitoring, personality, and expressive cues.

The social context strongly influenced the expressive behaviors of Ss, providing support for a social inhibition effect and the self-monitoring construct was helpful in explaining individual differences in expressive regulation, with high self-monitors being successful at hiding their happiness when appropriate.

Behavioral markers and recognizability of the smile of enjoyment.

Results provide further evidence that enjoyment smiles are entities distinct from smiles in general.

Behavioral Markers and Recognizability of the Smile of Enjoyment

Ekman and Friesen (1982) predicted that smiles that express enjoyment would be marked by smoother zygomatic major actions of more consistent duration than the zygomatic major actions of nonenjoyment



The effect of laughter on evaluation of a slapstick movie.

If the authors laugh at a ]oke they are likely to think it funny, and funnier situations are expected to cause more laughter and more positive judgments, so the relationship between laughter and evaluation is likely to be dynamic.

What and Where are the Primary Affects? Some Evidence for a Theory

A set of 69 facial photographs of models simulating affective neutrality and the eight primary affects of interest, enjoyment, surprise, distress, fear, shame, contempt, and anger were presented to a

Facial Affect Scoring Technique: A First Validity Study

In 1862 Duchenne published his Mecanisme de la physionomie humaine, ou analyse electro-physiologique de Γ expression des passions, in which he used "the electrical currents for contraction of the

The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals

Acknowledgments List of Illustrations Figures Plates Preface to the Anniversary Edition by Paul Ekman Preface to the Third Edition by Paul Ekman Preface to the Second Edition by Francis Darwin

Unmasking The Face

Universals and cultural differences in facial expressions of emotion.

The smiling response: a contribution to the ontogenesis of social relations.

Human Facial Expression