Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach.

@article{Kraut1979SocialAE,
  title={Social and emotional messages of smiling: An ethological approach.},
  author={Robert E. Kraut and R. E. Johnston},
  journal={Journal of Personality and Social Psychology},
  year={1979},
  volume={37},
  pages={1539-1553}
}
  • R. KrautR. Johnston
  • Published 1 September 1979
  • Psychology
  • Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Did smiling evolve as an expression of happiness, friendliness, or both? Naturalistic observation at a bowling alley (N — 1,793 balls) shows that bowlers often smile when socially engaged, looking at and talking to others, but not necessarily after scoring a spare or a strike. In a second study, bowlers (N =166 balls) rarely smiled while facing the pins but often smiled when facing their friends. At a hockey game, fans (N = 3,726 faces) smiled both when they were socially involved and after… 

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