Social Modulation of Pain as Evidence for Empathy in Mice

@article{Langford2006SocialMO,
  title={Social Modulation of Pain as Evidence for Empathy in Mice},
  author={Dale J. Langford and Sara Eve Crager and Zarrar Shehzad and Shad B Smith and Susana G. Sotocinal and Jeremy S Levenstadt and Mona Lisa Chanda and Daniel J. Levitin and Jeffrey S. Mogil},
  journal={Science},
  year={2006},
  volume={312},
  pages={1967 - 1970}
}
Empathy is thought to be unique to higher primates, possibly to humans alone. We report the modulation of pain sensitivity in mice produced solely by exposure to their cagemates, but not to strangers, in pain. Mice tested in dyads and given an identical noxious stimulus displayed increased pain behaviors with statistically greater co-occurrence, effects dependent on visual observation. When familiar mice were given noxious stimuli of different intensities, their pain behavior was influenced by… 
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Results strongly imply that visual information plays a critical role in the development of empathy in humans, and some studies have also demonstrated that visual cues play a principal role in both contagious pain and contagious itch.
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