SoK: oracles from the ground truth to market manipulation

  title={SoK: oracles from the ground truth to market manipulation},
  author={Shayan Eskandari and Mehdi Salehi and Wanyun Catherine Gu and Jeremy Clark},
  journal={Proceedings of the 3rd ACM Conference on Advances in Financial Technologies},
One fundamental limitation of blockchain-based smart contracts is that they execute in a closed environment. Thus, they only have access to data and functionality that is already on the blockchain, or is fed into the blockchain. Any interactions with the real world need to be mediated by a bridge service, which is called an oracle. As decentralized applications mature, oracles are playing an increasingly prominent role. With their evolution comes more attacks, necessitating greater attention to… 

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