So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from?

@article{Berk2013SoDI,
  title={So depression is an inflammatory disease, but where does the inflammation come from?},
  author={Michael Berk and Lana J. Williams and Felice Nellie Jacka and Adrienne O'Neil and Julie A. Pasco and Steven Moylan and Nicholas B. Allen and Amanda L Stuart and Amie C Hayley and Michelle L. Byrne and Michael Maes},
  journal={BMC Medicine},
  year={2013},
  volume={11},
  pages={200 - 200}
}
BackgroundWe now know that depression is associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response and activation of cell-mediated immunity, as well as activation of the compensatory anti-inflammatory reflex system. It is similarly accompanied by increased oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), which contribute to neuroprogression in the disorder. The obvious question this poses is ‘what is the source of this chronic low-grade inflammation?’DiscussionThis review explores the role of… 

Association of Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) and Depressive Disorders

TLDR
It is concluded that inflammation may play a role in overreaction to negative information, altered reward responses, and physical symptoms of depression, and there is less evidence to support the effect of inflammation on cognitive control by standard neuropsychological measures.

IMPACT OF STRESS IN INFLAMMATION ASSOCIATED WITH DEPRESSION

TLDR
It is reported that depression is associated with a chronic, low-grade inflammatory response and activation of cell-mediated immunity, as well as activation of the compensatory anti-inflammatory reflex system, and antagonizing inflammatory pathways may improve depressive symptoms.

Inflammation as a Pathophysiologic Pathway to Anhedonia: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Implications.

TLDR
Recent evidence of relationships between inflammation and anhedonia is reviewed, while highlighting translational and mechanistic work describing the impact of inflammation on synthesis, release, and reuptake of neurotransmitters like dopamine and glutamate that affects circuits to drive motivational deficits are highlighted.

Old Friends, immunoregulation, and stress resilience

TLDR
Evidence is provided indicating that increases in immune (re-)activity and inflammation, potentially promoted by a reduced exposure to immunoregulatory microorganisms (“Old Friends”) in today’s modern society, may be causal factors in mediating the vulnerability to development and persistence of stress-related pathologies.

Inflammation in schizophrenia: A question of balance

10 Triggers of Inflammation to Be Avoided, to Reduce the Risk of Depression: Educating Our Patients about Adopting a Healthy Lifestyle-Not Smoking, Exercising, Eating Wisely, and So On-Might Lower Their Risk of Psychiatric Relapse

TLDR
It is logical to postulate that avoiding triggers of neuroinflammation might be a useful tactic to prevent depression or, perhaps, to minimize its severity.

Depression and Obesity: Analysis of Common Biomarkers

TLDR
The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the common and interacting mechanisms between depression and obesity.

C-Reactive Protein as a Biomarker for Major Depressive Disorder?

The etiopathogenesis of depression is not entirely understood. Several studies have investigated the role of inflammation in major depressive disorder. The present work aims to review the literature
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 373 REFERENCES

Depression's multiple comorbidities explained by (neuro)inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress pathways.

TLDR
It is concluded that the activation of peripheral and / or central IO&NS pathways may explain the co-occurrence of depression with the above disorders and shows that depression belongs to the spectrum of inflammatory and degenerative disorders.

Obesity, inflammation and the immune system

TLDR
There is a positive feedback loop between local inflammation in adipose tissue and altered immune response in obesity, both contributing to the development of related metabolic complications.

Depression, stress and immunological activation: the role of cytokines in depressive disorders.

Cytokines as mediators of depression: What can we learn from animal studies?

Evidence for an immune response in major depression: A review and hypothesis

  • Michael Maes
  • Biology
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry
  • 1995

Depression and sickness behavior are Janus-faced responses to shared inflammatory pathways

TLDR
Shared immuno-inflammatory pathways underpin the physiology of sickness behavior and the pathophysiology of clinical depression explaining their partially overlapping phenomenology.

Pathways linking depression, adiposity, and inflammatory markers in healthy young adults

Depression and type 2 diabetes: Inflammatory mechanisms of a psychoneuroendocrine co-morbidity

In animal models, psychosocial stress-induced (neuro)inflammation, apoptosis and reduced neurogenesis are associated to the onset of depression

Pro-inflammatory cytokines and treatment response to escitaloprsam in major depressive disorder

...