Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

@article{Major1989SnowAI,
  title={Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods},
  author={J. J. Major and Christopher G. Newhall},
  journal={Bulletin of Volcanology},
  year={1989},
  volume={52},
  pages={1-27}
}
Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or… 
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  • H. Tuffen
  • Geology, Medicine
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2010
TLDR
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