Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

  title={Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods},
  author={Jon J. Major and Christopher G. Newhall},
  journal={Bulletin of Volcanology},
Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or… 

Ice–volcano interaction of the 1996 Gjálp subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland

Volcanic eruptions under glaciers can cause dangerous floods and lahars and create hyaloclastite (fragmented glassy rock) mountains. But processes such as the rate of heat transfer between ice and

Lava-ice interactions during historical eruptions of Veniaminof Volcano, Alaska and the potential for meltwater floods and lahars

Veniaminof Volcano on the Alaska Peninsula of southwest Alaska is one of a small group of ice-clad volcanoes globally that erupts lava flows in the presence of glacier ice. Here, we describe the

How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the 21st century

Glaciers and ice sheets on many active volcanoes are rapidly receding. There is compelling evidence that melting of ice during the last deglaciation triggered a dramatic acceleration in volcanic

Snow-contact volcanic facies and their use in determining past eruptive environments at Nevados de Chillán volcano, Chile

Studies of the eruptive products from volcanoes with variable ice and snow cover and a long history of activity enable reconstruction of erupted palaeoenvironments, as well as highlighting the

How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?

  • H. Tuffen
  • Geology, Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2010
A critical overview of the evidence that current melting of ice will increase the frequency or size of hazardous volcanic eruptions and the potential for positive feedbacks between melting ofice and enhanced volcanism is provided.

Mapping methods and observations of surficial snow/ice cover at redoubt and Pavlof volcanoes, Alaska using optical satellite imagery

Alaska is a natural laboratory for the study of how active volcanism interacts with underlying seasonal snow, perennial snow, and glacial ice cover. While over half of the historically active

Ice-melt collapse pits and associated features in the 1991 lahar deposits of Volcán Hudson, Chile: criteria to distinguish eruption-induced glacier melt

In subaerial volcaniclastic sequences structures formed by ice blocks can provide information about a volcano's history of lahar generation by glacier melt. At Volcán Hudson in Chile, catastrophic



Generation of pyroclastic flows and surges by hot-rock avalanches from the dome of Mount St. Helens volcano, USA

Several hot-rock avalanches have occurred during the growth of the composite dome of Mount St. Helens, Washington between 1980 and 1987. One of these occurred on 9 May 1986 and produced a fan-shaped

Initiation and flow behavior of the 1980 Pine Creek and Muddy River lahars, Mount St. Helens, Washington

Two large, high-velocity lahars (volcanic debris flows) were triggered by a pyroclastic surge during the first few minutes of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens. The initial surge cloud

Swift snowmelt and floods (lahars) caused by great pyroclastic surge at Mount St Helens volcano, Washington, 18 May 1980

The initial explosions at Mount St. Helens, Washington, on the moring of 18 May 1980 developed into a huge pyroclastic surge that generated catastrophic floods off the east and west flanks of the

Interrelations among pyroclastic surge, pyroclastic flow, and lahars in Smith Creek valley during first minutes of 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA

A devastating pyroclastic surge and resultant lahars at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 produced several catastrophic flowages into tributaries on the northeast volcano flank. The tributaries

Phreatic eruptions of Ruapehu: April 1975

Abstract A major phreatic eruption occurred in Ruapehu Crater Lake, North Island, New Zealand, at 1975 April 24d, 03h 59m, N.Z.S.T. Only nine minutes of volcanic-seismic activity preceded the

Downstream dilution of a lahar : transition from debris flow to hyperconcentrated streamflow.

Nearly instantaneous melting of snow and ice by the March 19, 1982, eruption of Mount St. Helens released a 4 × 106 m3 flood of water from the crater that was converted to a lahar (volcanic debris

A detailed chronology of the most recent major eruptive period at Mount Hood, Oregon

The most recent eruptive period of Mount Hood volcano, the Old Maid eruptive period, was characterized by volcano-hydrologic events (hydrologic events initiated by volcanic activity) which resulted

Eruption-Triggered Avalanche, Flood, and Lahar at Mount St. Helens—Effects of Winter Snowpack

An explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens on 19 March 1982 had substantial impact beyond the vent because hot eruption products interacted with a thick snowpack. A blast of hot pumice, dome rocks,

Mudflows resulting from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington

On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, in southwestern Washington, erupted violently, setting off a chain of devastating hydrologic event. During the eruption, a massive debris avalanche moving down the