Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods

  title={Snow and ice perturbation during historical volcanic eruptions and the formation of lahars and floods},
  author={J. J. Major and Christopher G. Newhall},
  journal={Bulletin of Volcanology},
Historical eruptions have produced lahars and floods by perturbing snow and ice at more than 40 volcanoes worldwide. Most of these volcanoes are located at latitudes higher than 35°; those at lower latitudes reach altitudes generally above 4000 m. Volcanic events can perturb mantles of snow and ice in at least five ways: (1) scouring and melting by flowing pyroclastic debris or blasts of hot gases and pyroclastic debris, (2) surficial melting by lava flows, (3) basal melting of glacial ice or… 
Perturbation and melting of snow and ice by the 13 November 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia, and consequent mobilization, flow and deposition of lahars
A complex sequence of pyroclastic flows and surges erupted by Nevado del Ruiz volcano on 13 November 1985 interacted with snow and ice on the summit ice cap to trigger catastrophic lahars (volcanic
Ice–volcano interaction of the 1996 Gjálp subglacial eruption, Vatnajökull, Iceland
Volcanic eruptions under glaciers can cause dangerous floods and lahars and create hyaloclastite (fragmented glassy rock) mountains. But processes such as the rate of heat transfer between ice and
How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the 21st century
Glaciers and ice sheets on many active volcanoes are rapidly receding. There is compelling evidence that melting of ice during the last deglaciation triggered a dramatic acceleration in volcanic
Non-eruptive ice melt driven by internal heat at glaciated stratovolcanoes
Abstract Mudflows, floods and lahars from rapid snow and ice melting present potentially devastating hazards to populations surrounding glacial stratovolcanoes. Most ice-melt induced lahars have
Snow-contact volcanic facies and their use in determining past eruptive environments at Nevados de Chillán volcano, Chile
Studies of the eruptive products from volcanoes with variable ice and snow cover and a long history of activity enable reconstruction of erupted palaeoenvironments, as well as highlighting the
How will melting of ice affect volcanic hazards in the twenty-first century?
  • H. Tuffen
  • Geology, Medicine
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2010
A critical overview of the evidence that current melting of ice will increase the frequency or size of hazardous volcanic eruptions and the potential for positive feedbacks between melting ofice and enhanced volcanism is provided.
Proximal pyroclastic deposits from the 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: stratigraphy, distribution, and physical characteristics
Abstract More than 20 eruptive events during the 1989–1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano emplaced a complex sequence of lithic pyroclastic-flow, -surge, -fall, ice-diamict, and lahar deposits mainly on
Mapping methods and observations of surficial snow/ice cover at redoubt and Pavlof volcanoes, Alaska using optical satellite imagery
Alaska is a natural laboratory for the study of how active volcanism interacts with underlying seasonal snow, perennial snow, and glacial ice cover. While over half of the historically active
Ice-melt collapse pits and associated features in the 1991 lahar deposits of Volcán Hudson, Chile: criteria to distinguish eruption-induced glacier melt
In subaerial volcaniclastic sequences structures formed by ice blocks can provide information about a volcano's history of lahar generation by glacier melt. At Volcán Hudson in Chile, catastrophic
Voluminous ice-rich and water-rich lahars generated during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska
Abstract Redoubt Volcano in south-central Alaska began erupting on March 15, 2009, and by April 4, 2009, had produced at least 20 explosive events that generated multiple plumes of ash and numerous


Generation of pyroclastic flows and surges by hot-rock avalanches from the dome of Mount St. Helens volcano, USA
Several hot-rock avalanches have occurred during the growth of the composite dome of Mount St. Helens, Washington between 1980 and 1987. One of these occurred on 9 May 1986 and produced a fan-shaped
Initiation and flow behavior of the 1980 Pine Creek and Muddy River lahars, Mount St. Helens, Washington
Two large, high-velocity lahars (volcanic debris flows) were triggered by a pyroclastic surge during the first few minutes of the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens. The initial surge cloud
Swift snowmelt and floods (lahars) caused by great pyroclastic surge at Mount St Helens volcano, Washington, 18 May 1980
The initial explosions at Mount St. Helens, Washington, on the moring of 18 May 1980 developed into a huge pyroclastic surge that generated catastrophic floods off the east and west flanks of the
Interrelations among pyroclastic surge, pyroclastic flow, and lahars in Smith Creek valley during first minutes of 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, USA
A devastating pyroclastic surge and resultant lahars at Mount St. Helens on 18 May 1980 produced several catastrophic flowages into tributaries on the northeast volcano flank. The tributaries
Phreatic eruptions of Ruapehu: April 1975
Abstract A major phreatic eruption occurred in Ruapehu Crater Lake, North Island, New Zealand, at 1975 April 24d, 03h 59m, N.Z.S.T. Only nine minutes of volcanic-seismic activity preceded the
Downstream dilution of a lahar : transition from debris flow to hyperconcentrated streamflow.
Nearly instantaneous melting of snow and ice by the March 19, 1982, eruption of Mount St. Helens released a 4 × 106 m3 flood of water from the crater that was converted to a lahar (volcanic debris
The May 1915 eruptions of Lassen Peak, II: May 22 volcanic blast effects, sedimentology and stratigraphy of deposits, and characteristics of the blast cloud
Abstract The May 22, 1915 eruptions of Lassen Peak involved a volcanic blast and the emplacement of three geographically and temporally distinct lahar deposits. The volcanic blast occurred when a
A detailed chronology of the most recent major eruptive period at Mount Hood, Oregon
The most recent eruptive period of Mount Hood volcano, the Old Maid eruptive period, was characterized by volcano-hydrologic events (hydrologic events initiated by volcanic activity) which resulted
Eruption-Triggered Avalanche, Flood, and Lahar at Mount St. Helens—Effects of Winter Snowpack
An explosive eruption of Mount St. Helens on 19 March 1982 had substantial impact beyond the vent because hot eruption products interacted with a thick snowpack. A blast of hot pumice, dome rocks,
Mudflows resulting from the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington
On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, in southwestern Washington, erupted violently, setting off a chain of devastating hydrologic event. During the eruption, a massive debris avalanche moving down the