# Snakes: Active contour models

@article{Kass2004SnakesAC, title={Snakes: Active contour models}, author={Michael Kass and Andrew P. Witkin and Demetri Terzopoulos}, journal={International Journal of Computer Vision}, year={2004}, volume={1}, pages={321-331} }

A snake is an energy-minimizing spline guided by external constraint forces and influenced by image forces that pull it toward features such as lines and edges. Snakes are active contour models: they lock onto nearby edges, localizing them accurately. Scale-space continuation can be used to enlarge the capture region surrounding a feature. Snakes provide a unified account of a number of visual problems, including detection of edges, lines, and subjective contours; motion tracking; and stereo…

## 15,576 Citations

Locating object contours in complex background using improved snakes

- Computer Science, PhysicsComput. Vis. Image Underst.
- 2007

A semi-automatic system for edge tracking with snakes

- Computer ScienceThe Visual Computer
- 2005

An algorithm is presented that uses a block matching technique to guide the endpoints of the snake, optical flow to push the snake in the direction of the underlying motion, followed by the traditional snake edge-fitting minimization process for tracking facial features of an actor for driving computer animated characters.

Efficient Contour Detection Based On Improved Snake Model

- Computer Science, PhysicsInt. J. Pattern Recognit. Artif. Intell.
- 2004

This paper presents a new external force field, named gravitationforce field, for the snake model, and associates this force field with edge preserving smoothing to drive the snake for solving the problems.

A NOVELL ALGORITHM FOR ACTIVES CONTOUR MODELS: ADAPTIVE SNAKES

- Computer Science
- 2005

This work presents a novel algorithm for optimizing deformable contour models. It overcomes an inherent problem of GVF snakes using a dynamic intervention at the curve evolution in a way that is…

An Initialization of Active Contour Models(Snakes) using Convex Hull Approximation

- Computer Science
- 2006

This paper proposes a new initialization of Snakes and GVF using convex hull approximation, which initializes the vertex of Snake andGVF as a convex polygonal contour near object edges.

Directional gradient vector flow for snakes

- Computer ScienceProceedings of the Fourth IEEE International Symposium on Signal Processing and Information Technology, 2004.
- 2004

Experimental results demonstrate that the DGVF snake provides a better segmentation than GVF snake in situations when edges of different directions are present and may pose confusion for segmentation.

Dynamic directional gradient vector flow for snakes

- Computer ScienceIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
- 2006

Experimental results demonstrate that the DDGVF snake provides a much better segmentation than GVF snake in situations when edges of different directions are present which pose confusion for segmentation.

Guided energy-minimizing model for segmentation of vector fields

- Computer Science
- 2016

Active contours or snakes, are a group of image segmentation methods based on the idea of energy-minimizng curves. In this paper classical snake model with added Balloon Force is modified, granting…

Dividing snake algorithm for multiple object segmentation

- Computer Science
- 2002

This work further develops the segmented snake approach to contour detection and illustrates its flexibility by showing how it can be adapted to yield a dividing snake algorithm for use in multiple object segmentation.

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