Smoking status and urine cadmium above levels associated with subclinical renal effects in U.S. adults without chronic kidney disease.

@article{Mortensen2011SmokingSA,
  title={Smoking status and urine cadmium above levels associated with subclinical renal effects in U.S. adults without chronic kidney disease.},
  author={Mary Ellen Mortensen and L Wong and John D. Osterloh},
  journal={International journal of hygiene and environmental health},
  year={2011},
  volume={214 4},
  pages={
          305-10
        }
}
Tobacco smoke is a major source of adult exposure to cadmium (Cd). Urine Cd levels (CdU) above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine have been associated with increased rates of microproteinuria and reduction in glomerular filtration rate. The two study objectives were to determine the prevalence and relative risk (RR) by smoking status for CdU above 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 μgCd/g creatinine in U.S. adults; and to describe geometric mean CdU by smoking status, age, and sex. NHANES 1999-2006 data for… CONTINUE READING

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