Smoking as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: contrasting evidence from a systematic review of case-control and cohort studies.

@article{Almeida2002SmokingAA,
  title={Smoking as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease: contrasting evidence from a systematic review of case-control and cohort studies.},
  author={O. Almeida and G. Hulse and D. Lawrence and L. Flicker},
  journal={Addiction},
  year={2002},
  volume={97 1},
  pages={
          15-28
        }
}
AIMS To investigate the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) associated with smoking. DESIGN Meta-analyses of case-control and cohort studies. DATA SOURCE Index Medicus-Medline (1966-April 2000) and PsycINFO (1984-April 2000) databases were systematically consulted for the retrieval of references. This search was supplemented by manual search of relevant references quoted by other studies and reviews. STUDY SELECTION Irrelevant abstracts and articles were identified by one of the authors… Expand
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Smoking and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease in a population-based cohort study: the Rotterdam Study
TLDR
The finding that carriers of the APOEepsilon4 had no increased risk of dementia suggests an interaction between smoking and the APolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. Expand
The influence of smoking on the risk of Alzheimer’s disease
TLDR
The results are consistent with the observation that smoking increases the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, however, it is found that among previous smokers who quit smoking, there may be a slight reduction in therisk of AD. Expand
Smoking and Alzheimer's disease: a review of the epidemiological evidence.
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TLDR
Overall evidence from 19 case-control studies of Alzheimer's disease and smoking shows a highly significant negative association and is consistent with other data suggesting nicotine protects against AD. Expand
Smoking as a Risk Factor for Alzheimer's Disease
TLDR
It appears that this study includes the largest group of Alzheimer’s disease patients studied with respect to smoking, and findings indicate that people who used tobacco developed Alzheimer‘s disease an average of two years earlier, but these findings were not statistically significant. Expand
Risk factors in clinically diagnosed presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type: a case-control study in northern England.
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No significant relationship between exposure to aluminium in water supplies, tea, and antacids was found; however, the bioavailability of all dietary aluminium, determined by the concentrations of dissolved silicon in water, requires further investigation. Expand
Rates and risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease
TLDR
Female gender, current smoking, and low levels of education, and current smoking increased the risk of AD significantly, while head trauma was not a risk factor for AD, and smoking did not protect against AD. Expand
Smoking and the occurrence of Alzheimer's disease: cross-sectional and longitudinal data in a population-based study.
TLDR
Smoking does not seem protective against Alzheimer's disease or dementia, and the cross-sectional association might be due to differential mortality. Expand
Risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a case-control study.
TLDR
A case-control study of 98 AD patients and 98 age- and sex-matched controls found factors associated with AD included the presence of apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele, and the duration of well water consumption. Expand
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TLDR
Dementia among first- or second-degree relatives and advanced age of the mother at subject's birth (age over 40) were associated with AD, but the previously reported association with antecedent thyroid disease or family history of Down's syndrome was not confirmed. Expand
Alcohol and tobacco consumption as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: a collaborative re-analysis of case-control studies. EURODEM Risk Factors Research Group.
TLDR
A statistically significant inverse association between smoking and Alzheimer's disease was observed at all levels of analysis, with a trend towards decreasing risk with increasing consumption and a propensity towards a stronger inverse relation among patients with a positive family history of dementia. Expand
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