Smoking and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes

To evaluate the effect of cumulative smoking on the development of diabetic nephropathy. Study included 3613 patients with type 1 diabetes, participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. The 12-year cumulative risk of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was estimated for current, ex- and nonsmokers. Cox regression… (More)