High-resolution color doppler ultrasound examination and related risk factor analysis of lower extremity vasculopathy in type 2 diabetes patients.
AIMS To determine whether postprandial lipid levels are markers of clinical and subclinical macrovascular disease in a select group of patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS We recruited 119 local patients with type 2 diabetes and moderate metabolic control (HbA1c <8%). The patients were being treated with dietary measures and/or oral antihyperglycemic therapy. No patient was receiving lipid-lowering therapy. A history of cardiovascular events was recorded and the ankle-arm index was measured to assess subclinical peripheral artery disease. The patients underwent a lipid analysis after a 12-h fast and 4h after a mixed breakfast (50 g of fat, 40 g of carbohydrates). RESULTS The patients with clinical and subclinical macrovascular disease had a greater history of smoking, a longer disease duration, and higher serum creatinine levels. The groups with macroangiopathy had lower postprandial concentrations of HDL cholesterol (p<0.05) and a trend towards lower fasting levels of HDL cholesterol (p=0.08) and higher fasting and postprandial levels of triglycerides (p=0.07). Multivariate analysis showed the presence of vascular (both clinical and subclinical) disease to be significantly associated with smoking (OR 3.06; 95% CI, 1.15-8.4), disease duration (for each year, OR 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.22) and postprandial levels of triglycerides (for each 50mg, OR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.13-2.65). CONCLUSIONS In our diabetic patients, the postprandial level of triglycerides 4h after a fatty breakfast, though not fasting lipids, plus smoking and disease duration were independently associated to clinical and subclinical macrovascular disease.