Smoking and mortality--beyond established causes.

@article{Carter2015SmokingAM,
  title={Smoking and mortality--beyond established causes.},
  author={Brian D. Carter and Christian C. Abnet and D Feskanich and Neal D. Freedman and Patricia Hartge and Cora E. Lewis and Judith K. Ockene and Ross L Prentice and Frank E. Speizer and Michael J. Thun and Eric J. Jacobs},
  journal={The New England journal of medicine},
  year={2015},
  volume={372 7},
  pages={
          631-40
        }
}
BACKGROUND Mortality among current smokers is 2 to 3 times as high as that among persons who never smoked. Most of this excess mortality is believed to be explained by 21 common diseases that have been formally established as caused by cigarette smoking and are included in official estimates of smoking-attributable mortality in the United States. However, if smoking causes additional diseases, these official estimates may significantly underestimate the number of deaths attributable to smoking… 

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