Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis

@article{Kanis2004SmokingAF,
  title={Smoking and fracture risk: a meta-analysis},
  author={John A. Kanis and Olof Johnell and Anders Od{\'e}n and Helena Johansson and Christophe De Laet and John A. Eisman and Saeko Fujiwara and Heikki Kroger and Eugene V. McCloskey and Dan Mellstrom and L. J. Iii Melton and Huibert A. P. Pols and Jeff Reeve and Alan J Silman and Alan Tenenhouse},
  journal={Osteoporosis International},
  year={2004},
  volume={16},
  pages={155-162}
}
Smoking is widely considered a risk factor for future fracture. The aim of this study was to quantify this risk on an international basis and to explore the relationship of this risk with age, sex and bone mineral density (BMD). We studied 59,232 men and women (74% female) from ten prospective cohorts comprising EVOS/EPOS, DOES, CaMos, Rochester, Sheffield, Rotterdam, Kuopio, Hiroshima and two cohorts from Gothenburg. Cohorts were followed for a total of 250,000 person-years. The effect of… 
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The present meta-analysis of 14 prospective studies suggests that, compared with never smokers, cigarette smoking increases risk of hip fracture in man, specifically in current smokers.
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Smoking increased the risk for fracture among elderly women, especially vertebral fractures, compared to current smokers and former smokers had a decreased risk for vertebrae fractures, but not for other types of fractures.
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