Smoking and cycle control among oral contraceptive users.

  title={Smoking and cycle control among oral contraceptive users.},
  author={Marc J. Rosenberg and Michael S. Waugh and Catherine M Stevens},
  journal={American journal of obstetrics and gynecology},
  volume={174 2},
OBJECTIVE Because cigarette smoking has a variety of antiestrogenic actions, we investigated the possibility that smoking may adversely affect spotting and bleeding among women using oral contraceptives. STUDY DESIGN Three open-label, randomized clinical trials involving 16,506 cycles among 2956 oral contraceptive users were performed. RESULTS Smokers reported a consistently higher frequency of spotting or bleeding than did nonsmokers. After recency and consistency of oral contraceptive use… CONTINUE READING
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