Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association

  title={Smoking and age-related macular degeneration: a review of association},
  author={Judith M. Thornton and Richard Edwards and Paul Mitchell and Roger A. Harrison and Iain Buchan and Simon P. Kelly},
PurposeAge-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of severe and irreversible vision loss in the Western world. As there is no effective treatment for all types of AMD, identifying modifiable risk factors is of great importance. This review evaluates the epidemiological evidence associating smoking with AMD.MethodsSystematic review of published epidemiological studies evaluated against established criteria for evidence of a causal relationship.ResultsIn total, 17 studies (cross… CONTINUE READING
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