Smoking and Parkinson's Disease

@article{Sasco1990SmokingAP,
  title={Smoking and Parkinson's Disease},
  author={Annie Jeanne Sasco and Ralph S. Paffenbarger},
  journal={Epidemiology},
  year={1990},
  volume={1},
  pages={460–465}
}
A case-control analysis d Parkinsons disease and smoking habits was conducted in a cohort of 50,002 men who attended Harvard College (Cambridge, MA) o r the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, PA) between 1916 and 1950 and were followed in adulthood tor morbidity and mortality data. Ninety-six cases of Parkinsons disease were identified from responses to a mailed yxionnaire, addresaed in 1976 to the University of Pennsylvania alumni and in 1977–1978 to the Harvard alumni. Four controls… 

Smoking and Parkinson's disease

Results do not support the hypothesis that smoking protects against PD; rather they strongly imply the converse, that PD reduces smoking.

The role of physical exercise in the occurrence of Parkinson's disease.

In adulthood, practice of moderate or heavy sports was linked to a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease, although more precise analysis revealed that there was only a modest nonsignificant reduction in risk for subjects who do a moderate amount of physical exercise, but this negative association disappears at higher levels of physical expenditure.

Cigarette smoking and protection from Parkinson's disease

A protective association of cigarette smoking for Parkinson's disease may constitute an important etiologic clue.

Risk‐factors for Parkinson's disease: case‐control study in the province of Cáceres, Spain

Rural living, well‐water drinking, positive family history for PD and postural tremor, and alcohol‐drinking habit in males were associated to an increased risk for PD, with results regarding exposure to pesticides near to statistical significance.

Parkinson’s Disease Protects Against Smoking?

Current and former smoking do not exert the same protective effect against Parkinson’s disease so that it is unnecessary to postulate a biological mechanism through which smoking protects against PD.

A case‐control study of Parkinson's disease in a horticultural region of British Columbia

It seems likely that the pathogenesis of idiopathic parkinsonism is multifactorial rather than related to a specific agent, and occupations involving the use of agricultural chemicals may predispose to the development of IP.

Epidemiologic approaches to the study of Parkinson's disease etiology.

This review evaluates recent evidence concerning the etiology of Parkinson's disease, with emphasis on environmental and lifestyle exposures and their potential interactions with genetic susceptibility traits, and concludes with recommendations for future research directions.

Can Parkinson’s disease be prevented? : epidemiological evidence on lifestyle factors

The results from prospective cohort studies suggest that lifestyle factors can influence future risk of Parkinson's disease, and interventions on these lifestyle factors may have the possibility to prevent the disease eventually.

Association between Parkinson’s Disease and Cigarette Smoking, Rural Living, Well-Water Consumption, Farming and Pesticide Use: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

The weight of the evidence and meta-analysis support the conclusion that there is a causal relationship between PD risk and cigarette smoking, or some unknown factor correlated with cigarette smoking.

References

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It is concluded that smoking had no effect on the development of idiopathic Parkinson's disease and relative risk of IPD significantly increased when prior diagnosis of psychoneurosis and psychosomatic illness had been made.

Smoking and Parkinson's disease.

The negative association between Parkinson's disease and smoking is confirmed and is independent of other associated factors, and the positive correlation of degenerative vascular disease with smoking is further evidence that arteriosclerosis is not involved in the causation of Parkinson's Disease.

Cigarette smoking and Parkinson disease

There were fewer cigarette smokers among persons with Parkinson disease than among other patients, and significantly different smoking rates were also present at 10 and 20 years before the onset of parkinsonism.

Epidemiologic study of Parkinson's disease in Hong Kong

It is found that subjects with residence of long duration in rural areas, with engagement in farming, with previous use of herbicides and pesticides, and with habitual consumption of raw vegetables had a statistically significantly increased risk of PD.

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The relative risk of PD decreased with smoking, an inverse relationship supported by many studies, and the association between PD development and paraquat contact, and postural tremor gave statistically significant probability estimates.

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Investigation of a disease register of the Sentinel Stations in The Netherlands found no association was observed between Parkinson's disease and severe head trauma with loss of consciousness, or surgery with total anaesthesia, and Cigarette smoking was associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's Disease.

The epidemiology of Parkinson's disease. A case-control study of young-onset and old-onset patients.

It is suggested that the risk of developing Parkinson's disease is influenced by a variety of factors, and smoking was inversely associated with PD, as has been previously reported.

Nicotine exposure and Parkinson disease.

The study was unable to find further support for the nicotine protection hypothesis and concluded that the observed inverse relationship between smoking and Parkinson disease is likely explainable by other factors, such as selective mortality or pre-morbid behavioral and/or constitutional changes.

Cigarette smoking and Parkinson disease: the illusion of a neuroprotective effect.

  • J. Riggs
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Clinical neuropharmacology
  • 1992
Longitudinal Gompertzian analysis demonstrates that no neuroprotective influence is necessary to account for the negative association between Parkinson disease and cigarette smoking, and demonstrates that disease mortality patterns and trends are actually three-dimensional phenomenon.

A case‐control study of twin pairs discordant for Parkinson's disease

Thirteen dizygotic discordant twin pairs were evaluated with the same techniques, but there were no statistically significant differences between affected and unaffected twins.