Smoking Is Associated With Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy

@article{Sawicki1994SmokingIA,
  title={Smoking Is Associated With Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy},
  author={Peter T. Sawicki and Ulrike Didjurgeit and Ingrid M{\"u}hlhauser and Ralf Bender and Lutz Heinemann and Michael F. Berger},
  journal={Diabetes Care},
  year={1994},
  volume={17},
  pages={126 - 131}
}
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between cigarette smoking and the progression of diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A prospective, follow-up study over one year was conducted in a sequential sample of 34 smokers, 35 nonsmokers, and 24 ex-smokers with type I diabetes, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. Progression of renal disease was defined according to the stage of nephropathy as an increase in proteinuria or serum creatinine or a decrease in the glomerular… 

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TLDR
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The Role of Smoking as a Modifiable Risk Factor in Diabetic Nephropathy.
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Smoking is an independent risk factor for progression of diabetic nephropathy and abnormal renal function in type 2 diabetes mellitus by estimating urine protein-creatinine ratio, blood urea, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate and serum lipid profile in selected subjects.
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