Smoking--a renal risk factor.

  title={Smoking--a renal risk factor.},
  author={Stephan Reinhold Orth},
  volume={86 1},
One of the most important tasks of clinical and experimental nephrology is to identify the risk factors of progression of renal failure. A major renal risk factor which has not been sufficiently acknowledged despite increasing evidence is cigarette smoking. Diabetologists were the first to recognize the adverse effects of smoking on the kidney: both in type 1 and in type 2 diabetes smoking (i) increases the risk of development of nephropathy and (ii) nearly doubles the rate of progression to… CONTINUE READING


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