Smoke Gets in the Eye: A systematic review of case reports of ocular complications of crack cocaine use.

  title={Smoke Gets in the Eye: A systematic review of case reports of ocular complications of crack cocaine use.},
  author={Hemant Gohil and Miroslav Mi{\vs}kovi{\'c} and Jane A. Buxton and Simon P. Holland and Carol S Strike},
  journal={Drug and alcohol review},
ISSUES Use of crack cocaine and associated medical complications persists globally. Some reports in medical literature describe a sight-threatening condition commonly referred to as 'crack eye' or 'crack eye syndrome'. The purpose of this review is to describe what is known about crack eye from case reports in peer-reviewed literature. APPROACH A structured search was completed in MEDLINE, TOXLINE, EMBASE, PsychInfo, Scopus and Biomed Central, to collect case reports and case series on… 


Crack eye syndrome.
A thorough social history should be elicited when patients who have unilateral or bilateral corneal defects of unknown origin are examined, or when treating persons with no other known risk factors for corneals disruption, with recommendations on treatment.
Microbial keratitis with crack cocaine.
A 27-year old Hispanic woman presented to the ophthalmology clinic at Jacobi Hospital, Bronx, NY, with decreasing visual acuity of 3 weeks' duration in both eyes, and first started smoking crack approximately 4 months prior to being seen.
Crack eye.
Infectious corneal ulcers associated with crack cocaine abuse
Anesthetic corneal changes from crack cocaine, the alkaloid base used in preparation of the drug, and the smoke emitted during its abuse may contribute to the development of infectiousCorneal ulcers.
Acquired anterior staphyloma after corneal ulcer associated with the use of crack.
An unusual case of acquired anterior staphyloma in a patient addicted to crack cocaine, who was hospitalized to ensure compliance with the prescribed treatment and advised to undergo therapeutic keratoplasty; however, the patient left the hospital against medical advice and was lost to follow-up for the next 6 months.
Woman with painful, red eyes
Corneal defects secondary to smoking crack cocaine is diagnosed and chemical injury, bilateral corneal abrasion, bilateral recurrent cornea erosion syndrome, and epithelial defects caused by crack-cocaine abuse are in the differential.
Bilateral Rhizopus keratitis in a cocaine user.
Assessment of Tear Amount in Subjects Under the Effect of (Inhaled) Cocaine
A relationship between snorted cocaine and a reduction in tear amount is suggested and the identification of the tear cocaine effect and the pathway of action cannot be overlooked in the research for a comprehensive characterization of inhaled cocaine action in the central and peripheral nervous system.
Metabolomics of cocaine: implications in toxicity
This review aims to discuss metabolomics of cocaine, namely by presenting all known metabolites of cocaine and their roles in the cocaine-mediated toxic effects and their positions in the pharmacokinetics of cocaine.