Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile.

  title={Smiling enemies: Young children better recall mean individuals who smile.},
  author={Xianwei Meng and Tatsunori Ishii and Kairi Sugimoto and Ruiting Song and Yusuke Moriguchi and Katsumi Watanabe},
  journal={Journal of experimental child psychology},
2 Citations
Typical emotional expression in children’s drawings of the human face
This study was aimed at verifying if children introduce emotional expressions in their drawings of human faces, and if a preferential expression exists; we also wanted to verify if children’s
Source memory and social exchange in young children.
Children seem to better recognise the action of angry individuals than smiling individuals, suggesting that angry facial expressions are more salient for children's source memory in a social exchange.


On the flexibility of social source memory: a test of the emotional incongruity hypothesis.
Focusing on expectancy-incongruent information may represent a more efficient, general, and hence more adaptive memory strategy for remembering exchange-relevant information than focusing only on cheaters.
Memory and disgust: Effects of appearance-congruent and appearance-incongruent information on source memory for food
Testing whether the same results can be obtained with fitness-relevant stimuli from another domain—pictures of disgusting-looking or tasty-looking food, paired with tasty and disgusting descriptions, parallel the results from the social domain.
Appearance-based first impressions and person memory.
The results show that person memory is consistently affected by different kinds of social expectations, supporting the idea that the mechanisms determining memory performance generalize beyond exchange-relevant reputational and emotional information.
Expectancy effects in source memory: how moving to a bad neighborhood can change your memory
Findings can be attributed to a mechanism that focuses on expectancy–incongruent information, representing a more flexible and therefore efficient memory strategy for remembering exchange-relevant information.
The impact of emotional expressions on children’s trust judgments
The facial emotions expressed by potential informants can undermine young children’s selective trust based on the behavioural record of those informants, especially if children have already formed an impression of two potential informants based on their behavioural record.
Egalitarianism in young children
It is shown that young children’s other-regarding preferences assume a particular form, inequality aversion that develops strongly between the ages of 3 and 8, which indicates that human egalitarianism and parochialism have deep developmental roots.