Smiles as Signals of Lower Status in Football Players and Fashion Models: Evidence That Smiles are Associated with Lower Dominance and Lower Prestige

@article{Ketelaar2012SmilesAS,
  title={Smiles as Signals of Lower Status in Football Players and Fashion Models: Evidence That Smiles are Associated with Lower Dominance and Lower Prestige},
  author={Timothy Ketelaar and Bryan L. Koenig and Daniel Gambacorta and Igor Dolgov and Daniel Hor and Jennifer Zarzosa and Cuauht{\'e}moc Luna-Nevarez and Micki Klungle and Lee Wells},
  journal={Evolutionary Psychology},
  year={2012},
  volume={10}
}
Across four studies, the current paper demonstrates that smiles are associated with lower social status. Moreover, the association between smiles and lower status appears in the psychology of observers and generalizes across two forms of status: prestige and dominance. In the first study, faces of fashion models representing less prestigious apparel brands were found to be more similar to a canonical smile display than the faces of models representing more prestigious apparel brands. In a… 

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