Smallpox vaccines for biodefense: need and feasibility

  title={Smallpox vaccines for biodefense: need and feasibility},
  author={Andrew W. Artenstein and John D. Grabenstein},
  journal={Expert Review of Vaccines},
  pages={1225 - 1237}
Smallpox, eradicated as a cause of natural disease through an intensive global effort in the later part of the 20th Century, has resurfaced as a possible agent of bioterrorism. For this reason, there is renewed interest in smallpox vaccines. Live vaccinia virus, an orthopoxvirus related to smallpox, has a long and successful clinical track record as an effective smallpox vaccine; however, its use is associated with uncommon yet serious adverse events. This has led to a surge of recent research… 
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The history of smallpox vaccines and recent achievements in the development of highly efficacious and safer vaccines and vaccine applications are reviewed and assessment of adequate animal models to study pathogenesis and protective immunity is reviewed.
Smallpox vaccines for biodefense.
The immunology of smallpox vaccines.
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A public-health response to smallpox as using for bioterrorism is described, with great concern that smallpox is an excellent candidate for use as a terrorist weapon.
Safe and Effective Smallpox Vaccine Development Using DNA Vaccines and In vivo Electroporation
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This is the first demonstration that a subunit vaccine approach to smallpox-monkeypox immunization is feasible and it is demonstrated that rhesus macaques vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of four vaccinia virus genes were protected from severe disease after an otherwise lethal challenge with monkeypox virus.