To characterize the morphological features of the myelinated fibers in the mutant quails deficient in neurofilaments (NF), caused by a nonsense mutation in the NF-L gene, the morphological parameters of the axon and myelin sheath, and their relationships in the peroneal nerve were evaluated. In the mutant, the axonal area was smaller than in the control (P>0.01), reflecting the lack of large diameter axons. There was no significant difference in the mean number of myelin lamellae and of their spacings between controls and mutants. Therefore, it was decided to analyze the alteration of axonal parameters in relation to the number of myelin lamellae. In the regression analysis, the number of microtubules (MT) per square micrometer of the axonal area was greater in the mutant than in the control (P<0.05); however, the number of MT per axon was similar in controls and mutants with the same given number of myelin lamellae. The number of MT+NF per axon was smaller in the mutant than in the control only for myelinated fibers with more than 25 myelin lamellae (P>0.05). These findings indicate that there was a less significant effect of NF deficiency on the smaller than on the larger myelinated fibers. There was no compensatory increase in the numbers of MT per axon of the myelinated fibers in the mutant as found previously in the unmyelinated fibers of the mutant.