Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

  title={Small upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles for biomedical applications.},
  author={Dev Kumar Chatterjee and Muthu Kumara Gnanasammandhan and Yong Zhang},
  volume={6 24},
Fluorescent labels have been widely used for biological applications, primarily in imaging and assays. Traditional fluorophores such as fluorescent dyes are mainly based on downconversion fluorescence, which have several drawbacks such as photobleaching, high background noise from autofluorescence, and considerable photodamage to biological materials. Upconverting fluorescent nanoparticles emit detectable photons of higher energy in the near-infrared (NIR) or visible range upon irradiation with… CONTINUE READING


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