Cancer stem-like cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are considered to be essential for tumor maintenance, recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of CSCs/CICs are still elusive. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the cell growth of oral CSCs/CICs. Oral CSCs/CICs were isolated as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 bright (ALDH1(br)) cells by the ALDEFLUOR assay. Small proline-rich protein-1B (SPRR1B) gene was shown to be overexpressed in ALDH1(br) cells by a cDNA microarray and RT-PCR. SPRR1B was shown to have a role in cell growth and maintenance of ALDH1(br) cells by SPRR1B overexpression and knockdown experiments. To elucidate the molecular mechanism by which SPRR1B regulates cell growth, further cDNA microarray analysis was performed using SPRR1B-overexpressed cells and cells with SPRR1B knocked down by siRNA. Expression of the tumor suppressor gene Ras association domain family member 4 (RASSF4) was found to be suppressed in SPRR1B-overexpressed cells. On the other hand, the expression of RASSF4 was enhanced in cells in which SPRR1B expression was knocked down by SPRR1B-specific siRNA. RASSF4 has an RA (Ras association) domain, and we thus hypothesized that RASSF4 modulates the MAP kinase signal downstream of the Ras signal. MAP kinase signal was activated in SPRR1B-overexpressed cells, whereas the signal was suppressed in SPRR1B knocked down cells. Taken together, the results indicate that the expression of SPRR1B is upregulated in oral CSCs/CICs and that SPRR1B has a role in cell growth by suppression of RASSF4.