Small But Extremely Tough

  title={Small But Extremely Tough},
  author={K. Elizabeth Tanner},
  pages={1237 - 1238}
The extreme strength and toughness of a natural material from a marine shrimp can be explained by its intricate layered structure. Anyone interested in keeping the stomatopod Odontodactylus scyllarus (1), commonly known as the peacock or harlequin mantis shrimp (see the first figure), will soon discover that these crustaceans should not be kept in glass aquaria. The force generated with the dactyl club—a 5-mm-wide appendage used by the shrimp to smash the shells of their prey—can reach 500 N… 
Crustacean-derived biomimetic components and nanostructured composites.
The Review concludes with a discussion of recent advances in the development of biomimetics with controlled organic scaffolding, mineralization, and the construction of nanoscale composites, inspired by the organization and formation of the crustacean cuticle.
Bioinspired Chitinous Material Solutions for Environmental Sustainability and Medicine
Chitin—the second most abundant organic material on earth—is a polysaccharide that combines with proteinaceous materials to form composites that provide the structural backbone of insect cuticles,
Crystallographic Characteristics of Inorganic Mineral in Mammoth Ivory and Ivory
In this paper, the chemical composition and crystalline properties of mammoth ivory and ivory were systematically analyzed. The results revealed that the microscopic crystalline hydroxyapatites are
Biogenic Hydroxyapatite: A New Material for the Preservation and Restoration of the Built Environment.
It is identified that in addition to providing a biofilm scaffold for nucleation, the metabolic activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens increases the pH of the growth medium to a suitable level for hydroxyapatite formation.
Bioinspired structural materials.
The common design motifs of a range of natural structural materials are reviewed, and the difficulties associated with the design and fabrication of synthetic structures that mimic the structural and mechanical characteristics of their natural counterparts are discussed.
3D Printing of Bioinspired Structural Materials with Fibers Induced by Doctor Blading Process
Fiber is a crucial element in biological micro-structural materials. Replication of fiber-reinforced composites with analogous architectures of their natural counterparts has caused widespread
Multifunctional chiral nematic cellulose nanocrystals/glycerol structural colored nanocomposites for intelligent responsive films, photonic inks and iridescent coatings
Structural colored nanocomposites with photonic liquid crystal structures are desirable owing to their excellent optical performances, unique structural features and intelligent responsive behaviors.
3d Printing of Ceramic Composite with Biomimetic Toughening Design


The Stomatopod Dactyl Club: A Formidable Damage-Tolerant Biological Hammer
Nature has evolved efficient strategies to synthesize complex mineralized structures that exhibit exceptional damage tolerance, one such example is found in the hypermineralized hammer-like dactyl clubs of the stomatopods, a group of highly aggressive marine crustaceans.
Toughening through nature-adapted nanoscale design.
These films, obtained by the combination of low-temperature chemical bath deposition of titania with layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolytes, exhibit enhancement in a fracture toughness by a factor of 4, combined with notable increase in hardness, while the Young's modulus is largely preserved in comparison to the single titania layer.
Unexpected Strength and Toughness in Chitosan‐Fibroin Laminates Inspired by Insect Cuticle
A material inspired by natural insect cuticle and composed of chitosan and fibroin is created. The material exhibits the strength of an aluminum alloy at half its weight, while being clear,
Distribution of enamel crystallite orientation through an entire tooth crown studied using synchrotron X-ray diffraction.
Both the magnitude and the direction of the crystallite orientation were found to have a high spatial heterogeneity and areas of high crystallite alignment were directed perpendicular to the biting surfaces, which is thought to meet the functional requirements of mastication.
Roman Military Equipment: From the Punic Wars to the Fall of Rome
This book brings together evidence from all over the Roman Empire to examine the development of Roman military equipment. Rome's rise to Empire is often stated to have owed much to the efficiency and