Smad4-independent regulation of p21/WAF1 by transforming growth factor-β


The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)–Smad signaling pathway inhibits the growth of human epithelial cells and plays a role in tumor suppression. The Smad4 gene is mutated or deleted in 50% of pancreatic cancers. In this study, the Smad4-null pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3 was transfected with either the Smad4 expression vector or the empty vector… (More)
DOI: 10.1038/sj.onc.1207222


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