Smad4 dependency defines two classes of transforming growth factor {beta} (TGF-{beta}) target genes and distinguishes TGF-{beta}-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition from its antiproliferative and migratory responses.

@article{Levy2005Smad4DD,
  title={Smad4 dependency defines two classes of transforming growth factor \{beta\} (TGF-\{beta\}) target genes and distinguishes TGF-\{beta\}-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition from its antiproliferative and migratory responses.},
  author={Laurence Levy and Caroline S Hill},
  journal={Molecular and cellular biology},
  year={2005},
  volume={25 18},
  pages={8108-25}
}
In response to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), Smad4 forms complexes with activated Smad2 and Smad3, which accumulate in the nucleus, where they both positively and negatively regulate TGF-beta target genes. Mutation or deletion of Smad4 is found in about 50% of pancreatic tumors and in about 15% of colorectal tumors. As Smad4 is a central… CONTINUE READING