Smad3 in the mammary epithelium has a nonredundant role in the induction of apoptosis, but not in the regulation of proliferation or differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta.

@article{Yang2002Smad3IT,
  title={Smad3 in the mammary epithelium has a nonredundant role in the induction of apoptosis, but not in the regulation of proliferation or differentiation by transforming growth factor-beta.},
  author={Yu-an Yang and Binwu Tang and Gertraud W. Robinson and Lothar Hennighausen and Steven G. Brodie and Chu-xia Deng and Lalage M. Wakefield},
  journal={Cell growth & differentiation : the molecular biology journal of the American Association for Cancer Research},
  year={2002},
  volume={13 3},
  pages={123-30}
}
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates proliferation, morphogenesis, and functional differentiation in the mammary gland and plays complex roles in mammary tumorigenesis. Here we show that the signaling mediators Smad1-Smad5 are expressed at all stages of mammary gland development. To begin to investigate which Smads mediate which TGF-beta responses, we have analyzed mammary gland development in Smad3 null mice. Smad3 null virgin females showed delayed mammary gland development… CONTINUE READING

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Role of transforming growth factor- signaling in cancer

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