Smad2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate craniofacial and endodermal development.

@article{Liu2004Smad2AS,
  title={Smad2 and Smad3 coordinately regulate craniofacial and endodermal development.},
  author={Ye Liu and Maria H Festing and John F Thompson and Mark E. Hester and Scott Rankin and Heithem M. El-Hodiri and Aaron M. Zorn and Michael A. Weinstein},
  journal={Developmental biology},
  year={2004},
  volume={270 2},
  pages={411-26}
}
Ligands of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are involved in numerous developmental and disease processes. TGF-beta, activins, and nodal ligands operate through the highly homologous Smad2 and Smad3 intracellular mediators. Smad2 mutants exhibit early embryonic lethality, while Smad3 mutants are viable, but show a plethora of postnatal phenotypes, including immune dysfunction and skeletal abnormalities. Previously, we have shown that the Smad2 and Smad3 genes function… CONTINUE READING

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