Smad proteins and hepatocyte growth factor control parallel regulatory pathways that converge on beta1-integrin to promote normal liver development.

@article{Weinstein2001SmadPA,
  title={Smad proteins and hepatocyte growth factor control parallel regulatory pathways that converge on beta1-integrin to promote normal liver development.},
  author={Michael A. Weinstein and Satdarshan Paul Singh Monga and Yingqiu Yvette Liu and Steven G. Brodie and Yan Tang and Cuiling Li and Lopa Mishra and Chu Xia Deng},
  journal={Molecular and cellular biology},
  year={2001},
  volume={21 15},
  pages={5122-31}
}
Smads serve as intracellular mediators of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling. After phosphorylation by activated type I TGF-beta receptors, Smad proteins translocate to the nucleus, where they serve as transcription factors and increase or decrease expression of TGF-beta target genes. Mice lacking one copy each of Smad2 and Smad3 suffered midgestation lethality due to liver hypoplasia and anemia, suggesting essential dosage requirements of TGF-beta signal components. This is… CONTINUE READING