Smad and AML proteins synergistically confer transforming growth factor beta1 responsiveness to human germ-line IgA genes.

@article{Pardali2000SmadAA,
  title={Smad and AML proteins synergistically confer transforming growth factor beta1 responsiveness to human germ-line IgA genes.},
  author={Evangelia Pardali and Xuanhua Xie and Panagiotis Tsapogas and Shinsuke Mori Nobuyasu Itoh and Konstantinos Arvanitidis and C H Heldin and Peter Ten Dijke and Thomas Grundstr{\"o}m and Paschalis Sideras},
  journal={The Journal of biological chemistry},
  year={2000},
  volume={275 5},
  pages={3552-60}
}
Transcription of germ-line immunoglobulin heavy chain genes conditions them to participate in isotype switch recombination. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) stimulates promoter elements located upstream of the IgA1 and IgA2 switch regions, designated Ialpha1 and Ialpha2, and contributes to the development of IgA responses. We demonstrate that intracellular Smad proteins mediate activation of the Ialpha1 promoter by TGF-beta. TGF-beta type 1 receptor (ALK-5), activin type IB receptor… CONTINUE READING