Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (Concentration Deficit Disorder?): Current Status, Future Directions, and a Plea to Change the Name

@article{Barkley2014SluggishCT,
  title={Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (Concentration Deficit Disorder?): Current Status, Future Directions, and a Plea to Change the Name},
  author={Russell A. Barkley},
  journal={Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology},
  year={2014},
  volume={42},
  pages={117-125}
}
  • R. Barkley
  • Published 2014
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) have been recognized for nearly 30 years as comprising a semi-independent set(s) of symptoms from the inattentive (IN) and hyperactive-impulsive (HI) symptoms involved in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It has only been within the past decade that research focusing specifically on SCT symptoms and on samples of SCT cases chosen independently from ADHD samples has increased so as to address the question of whether SCT is a distinct… 

Paper Mentions

News Article
Uncovering a clinical portrait of sluggish cognitive tempo within an evaluation for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A case study
TLDR
A clinical description of SCT in a 7-year-old girl is provided, offering a real-life portrait of S CT while also providing an opportunity to qualitatively differentiate between SCT and ADHD, other psychopathologies, and potentially related domains of functioning.
Sluggish cognitive tempo and processing speed in adolescents with ADHD: do findings vary based on informant and task?
TLDR
Preliminary support is provided for the hypothesis that SCT may be more clearly associated with processing speed task performance as motor demands increase and a potential explanation for the mixed literature on SCT is provided by demonstrating that the presence and magnitude of associations vary by informant and task.
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Neuropsychological Functioning.
TLDR
Findings add to literature that supports the validity of SCT as a symptom profile separate from ADHD-inattention symptoms, including slower processing speed, poorer working memory, decreased inhibition, poorer vigilance, and increased reaction time.
Advancing the study of sluggish cognitive tempo via DSM, RDoC, and hierarchical models of psychopathology
TLDR
It is argued that multiple models of psychopathology should be leveraged to make substantive advances to the understanding of SCT, and ways in which SCT might be examined within the RDoC framework, including negative valence systems, cognitive systems, and arousal/regulatory systems, as well as within hierarchical models ofopathology.
Sluggish cognitive tempo: longitudinal stability and validity
TLDR
The current investigation will focus on parent and teacher reports which assess attention deficit hyperactive/impulsive disorder (ADHD) and standardized achievement measures which assess academic outcomes and on the independent effects of SCT on behavioural and academic outcomes concurrently over a 3-year period.
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Adults: Psychometric Validation of the Adult Concentration Inventory
TLDR
The findings support the use of the ACI in future studies examining SCT in adulthood and make a major contribution in moving the field toward a unified set of SCT items that can be used across studies.
Does Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Fit Within a Bi-Factor Model of ADHD?
TLDR
Although SCT symptoms were strongly associated with inattention, they loaded onto a factor independent of ADHD g, which supports a growing body of research suggesting SCT to be distinct and separate from ADHD.
Toward Establishing a Standard Symptom Set for Assessing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Children: Evidence From Teacher Ratings in a Community Sample
TLDR
This study evaluates a teacher-report rating scale of SCT revised based on recent meta-analytic findings that identified optimal items for distinguishing SCT from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention (ADHD-IN).
Barkley 1 Concentration Deficit Disorder ( Sluggish Cognitive Tempo )
This Fact Sheet is based on a chapter to appear in the next edition of Dr. Barkley's textbook, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment (4 th edition). New
Preschool Neuropsychological Predictors of School-aged Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Inattentive Behaviors.
TLDR
In secondary analyses that focused on specific facets of EF and processing speed, inhibitory control and working memory abilities predicted lower IN but not SCT behaviors, whereas slower processing speed significantly predicted both greater SCT and IN behaviors.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 54 REFERENCES
Distinguishing sluggish cognitive tempo from attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.
  • R. Barkley
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of abnormal psychology
  • 2012
TLDR
It is concluded that SCT may be a separate disorder from ADHD yet with comorbidity occurring in approximately half of all cases of each, and contributed unique variance to EF deficits and psychosocial impairment apart from ADHD inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms.
Dimensions and Correlates of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
TLDR
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo symptoms were greatest in youth with ADHD Inattentive type, but were also found in non-ADHD clinical groups, and its clinical utility is still unclear.
Distinguishing Sluggish Cognitive Tempo From ADHD in Children and Adolescents: Executive Functioning, Impairment, and Comorbidity
  • R. Barkley
  • Psychology, Medicine
    Journal of clinical child and adolescent psychology : the official journal for the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, American Psychological Association, Division 53
  • 2013
TLDR
Both disorders were impairing, but ADHD was more severely and pervasively so than SCT, especially in Home-School domains; SCT was most impaired in Community-Leisure domains.
The Relationship Between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo, Subtypes of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Anxiety Disorders
TLDR
SCT correlated significantly with inattentiveness, regardless of the subtype of ADHD, and correlated with variability in spatial memory; in contrast, there was no correlation between SCT and reaction time.
Factor Structure of a Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Scale in Clinically-Referred Children
TLDR
Psychometric characteristics of a recently developed 14-item scale of SCT, completed by teachers on children referred for outpatient neuropsychological assessment, found that SCT symptoms, especially those loading on the Sleepy/Sluggish and Slow/Daydreamy factors, correlated more strongly with inattentive than with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms.
ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Subtype With High Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
TLDR
This study supports revising subtype’s criteria and further studying the hypothesis that ADHD with high SCT constitutes a separate clinical entity.
Social and Academic Impairment in Youth with ADHD, Predominately Inattentive Type and Sluggish Cognitive Tempo
TLDR
The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.
The Association Between Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Academic Functioning in Youth with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
TLDR
Both SCT and DSM-IV symptoms of inattention were significantly correlated with domains of academic functioning and Implications of these findings towards supporting the external validity of the SCT construct are discussed along with potential implications for intervention.
Sluggish cognitive tempo is associated with academic functioning and internalizing symptoms in college students with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
TLDR
These results fill an important gap in the literature by confirming SCT to be distinct from ADHD in emerging adulthood, demonstrating S CT to be strongly linked to college student adjustment, and providing support for the hypothesis that SCT is associated with psychosocial functioning in both individuals with and without ADHD.
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo in Psychiatrically Hospitalized Children: Factor Structure and Relations to Internalizing Symptoms, Social Problems, and Observed Behavioral Dysregulation
TLDR
Results of the CFA analyses demonstrated that SCT is distinct from these other dimensions of child psychopathology, including ADHD inattention, depression, and anxiety.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...