Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions

@article{Nicholl2013SlowlyFS,
  title={Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions},
  author={Matt Nicholl and Steven J. Smartt and Anders Jerkstrand and Cosimo Inserra and M. G. McCrum and Rubina Kotak and Morgan Fraser and Douglas Wright and T.-W. Chen and K. Smith and David R. Young and Stuart A. Sim and Stefano Valenti and D. Andrew Howell and Fabio Bresolin and Rolf Peter Kudritzki and John L. Tonry and Martin E. Huber and Armin Rest and A. Pastorello and Lina Tomasella and Enrico Cappellaro and Stefano Benetti and Seppo Mattila and Erkki Kankare and Tuomas Kangas and Giorgos Leloudas and Jesper Sollerman and Francesco Taddia and Edo Berger and Ryan Chornock and Gautham Narayan and Christopher W. Stubbs and Ryan J. Foley and Ragnhild Lunnan and Alicia Margarita Soderberg and Nathan Edward Sanders and Dan Milisavljevic and Raffaella Margutti and Robert P. Kirshner and Nancy Elias-Rosa and Antonia Morales-Garoffolo and Stefan Taubenberger and Maria Teresa Botticella and Suvi Gezari and Yuji Urata and Steven A. Rodney and Adam G. Riess and Daniel M. Scolnic and W. Michael Wood-Vasey and William S. Burgett and K. C. Chambers and Heather Flewelling and Eugene. A. Magnier and Nicholas Kaiser and Nigel Metcalfe and J. S. Morgan and Paul A. Price and William Emmett Sweeney and Christopher Z. Waters},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2013},
  volume={502},
  pages={346-349}
}
Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 1044 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1–4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of ‘pair-instability’ supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140–260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon–oxygen cores of 65–130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron–positron pairs, causing rapid… 

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