Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions

@article{Nicholl2013SlowlyFS,
  title={Slowly fading super-luminous supernovae that are not pair-instability explosions},
  author={M. Nicholl and S. Smartt and A. Jerkstrand and C. Inserra and M. McCrum and R. Kotak and M. Fraser and D. Wright and T.-W. Chen and K. Smith and D. Young and S. Sim and S. Valenti and D. Howell and F. Bresolin and R. Kudritzki and J. Tonry and M. Huber and A. Rest and A. Pastorello and L. Tomasella and E. Cappellaro and S. Benetti and S. Mattila and E. Kankare and T. Kangas and G. Leloudas and J. Sollerman and F. Taddia and E. Berger and R. Chornock and G. Narayan and C. Stubbs and R. Foley and R. Lunnan and A. Soderberg and N. Sanders and D. Milisavljevic and R. Margutti and R. Kirshner and N. Elias-rosa and A. Morales-Garoffolo and S. Taubenberger and M. Botticella and S. Gezari and Y. Urata and S. Rodney and A. Riess and D. Scolnic and W. Wood-Vasey and W. Burgett and K. Chambers and H. Flewelling and E. Magnier and N. Kaiser and N. Metcalfe and J. Morgan and P. Price and W. Sweeney and C. Waters},
  journal={Nature},
  year={2013},
  volume={502},
  pages={346-349}
}
Super-luminous supernovae that radiate more than 1044 ergs per second at their peak luminosity have recently been discovered in faint galaxies at redshifts of 0.1–4. Some evolve slowly, resembling models of ‘pair-instability’ supernovae. Such models involve stars with original masses 140–260 times that of the Sun that now have carbon–oxygen cores of 65–130 solar masses. In these stars, the photons that prevent gravitational collapse are converted to electron–positron pairs, causing rapid… Expand
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