Slow axonal transport: stop and go traffic in the axon

  title={Slow axonal transport: stop and go traffic in the axon},
  author={Anthony Brown},
  journal={Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology},
  • Anthony Brown
  • Published 1 November 2000
  • Biology
  • Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
Efforts to observe the slow axonal transport of cytoskeletal polymers during the past decade have yielded conflicting results, and this has generated considerable controversy. The movement of neurofilaments has now been seen, and it is rapid, infrequent and highly asynchronous. This motile behaviour could explain why slow axonal transport has eluded observation for so long. 

Slow axonal transport and the genesis of neuronal morphology.

This new view, supported by both live-cell imaging and mechanistic analyses, suggests that slow axonal transport is both rapid and plastic, and hence could underlie transformations in neuronal morphology.

Microtubule motors, phosphorylation and axonal transport of neurofilaments

  • T. Shea
  • Biology
    Journal of neurocytology
  • 2000
This review juxtaposes older and more recent findings on NF dynamics, and speculates on the organization of axonal NFs as suggested by real-time analyses of NF transport.

Kinesin, dynein and neurofilament transport

Live-cell imaging of slow axonal transport in cultured neurons.

Rapid Movement of Microtubules in Axons slow axonal transport may actually be fast and asyn -

Movement of these cytoskeletal polymers can explain direct observations of the movement of microtubules why their movement was not detected in previous in cultured nerve cells using a modified fluorescence studies.

Stochastic simulation of neurofilament transport in axons: the "stop-and-go" hypothesis.

It is proposed that neurofilaments move in both anterograde and retrograde directions along cytoskeletal tracks, alternating between short bouts of rapid movement and short "on-track" pauses, and that they can also temporarily disengage from these tracks, resulting in more prolonged "off- track" pauses.

Slow Axonal Transport Methods for Studying Slow Axonal Transport

Direct observations of membranous organelles and cytoskeletal polymers in living cells now suggest that all axonal cargoes are transported by fast motors, and it is now clear that at least some of the cargoe of slow axonal transport can move in both anterograde and retrograde directions, although the net direction of movement may still be anterOGrade.

Neurofilament Polymer Transport in Axons

Using quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy and correlative light and electron microscopy, it is shown that the captured structures are single continuous neurofilament polymers, which are one of the cargo structures of slow axonal transport.



Slow axonal transport: the subunit transport model.

Rapid movement of axonal neurofilaments interrupted by prolonged pauses

The direct observation of the axonal transport of neurofilament protein tagged with green fluorescent protein in cultured nerve cells reveals rapid, intermittent and highly asynchronous movement of fluorescent neurofilaments.

Visualization of Slow Axonal Transport in Vivo

In axons, cytoskeletal constituents move by slow transport. However, it remains controversial whether axonal neurofilaments are dynamic structures in which only subunits are transported or whether

Speckle microscopic evaluation of microtubule transport in growing nerve processes

This work shows that individual microtubules can be visualized directly in the axonal shafts of Xenopus embryo neurons by using digital fluorescence microscopy, and argues against a model in which newly synthesized tubulin is transported down the axon in the form of microtubule.

Microtubule transport and assembly during axon growth

It is demonstrated that MT assembly and transport both contribute to the elaboration of the axonal MT array.

Transport of cytoskeletal elements in the squid giant axon.

It is suggested that particle size and charge determine which materials are transported down the axon, as previously shown for slow transport of cytoskeletal elements.

Slow Axonal Transport of Neurofilament Protein in Cultured Neurons

This study represents the first demonstration of the axonal transport of neurofilament protein in cultured neurons and suggests that the neurofilaments were transported either as assembled polymers or in a nonpolymeric form that assembled locally at the site of accumulation.

Retrograde transport of radiolabeled cytoskeletal proteins in transected nerves

  • J. GlassJ. Griffin
  • Biology
    The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
  • 1994
It is demonstrated that pulse-labeled cytoskeletal proteins move bidirectionally in this experimental system, and may provide insight into the normal mechanisms of cytOSkeletal maintenance.