Sleep and Hypnotic Drugs

  title={Sleep and Hypnotic Drugs},
  author={M. Johns},
SummaryIn recent years the effectiveness of hypnotic drugs has had to be assessed in terms of a greatly increased knowledge of the physiology and pathology of sleep. The normal pattern of sleep and wakefulness involves a cyclic alternation between three rather than two basically dissimilar states of the brain and body — alert wakefulness, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep. The pattern of this alternation in individual people results from the interaction of… Expand
Effect of a medicinal plant (Passiflora incarnata L) on sleep
The extracts obtained from Passiflora incarnata can be considered as appropriated sleep inducers, since both its frequency and mean duration were reduced. Expand
Conscious Intravenous Sedation in Dentistry: A Review of Current Therapy.
Several sedation options are used to minimize pain, anxiety, and discomfort during oral surgery procedures, and patients must retain their protective airway reflexes, and respond to and understand verbal communication. Expand
A green four-component synthesis of zwitterionic alkyl/benzyl pyrazolyl barbiturates and their photophysical studies
The zwitterionic nature of the new chimera makes them interesting candidates for drug delivery as zwittersionic drugs are known to have highly water soluble properties, specific protein absorption, slow recognition by immune system, slow blood clearance from body and can constantly diffuse and deposit throughout the physiological pH. Expand
Synthesis, Characterization, and Tautomerism of 1,3-Dimethyl Pyrimidine-2,4,6-Trione s-Triazinyl Hydrazine/Hydrazone Derivatives
1,3,5-Triazines and pyrimidine-2,4,6-triones belong to that class of compounds which are well known in literature for possessing wide range of biological activities. Here, we report a new family ofExpand
Stereoselective cascade assembling of benzylidenecyanoacetates and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid into (1R*,2S*)-1-cyano-5,7-dialkyl-4,6,8-trioxo-2-aryl-5,7-diazaspiro[2.5]octane-1-carboxylates
Abstract A new stereoselective cascade reaction of benzylidenecyanoacetates and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid by the action of bromine in the presence of a base into substituted (barbituricExpand
Road Traffic Injuries in the Pacific: The epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Fiji and the role of driver sleepiness
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Electrocatalytic and chemical methods in MHIRC reactions: the first example of the multicomponent assembly of medicinally relevant spirocyclopropylbarbiturates from three different molecules
Abstract Electrolysis of aldehydes, barbituric acids, and malononitrile in alcohol in an undivided cell in the presence of sodium bromide results in efficient MHIRC formation of the correspondingExpand
Facile and efficient approach for the synthesis of spirocyclopropylbarbiturates and 3-substituted-1,1,2,2-tetracyanocyclopropanes using N-halosulfonamides
An efficient procedure for the synthesis of spirocyclopropylbarbiturates and 3-substituted-1,1,2,2-tetracyanocyclopropanes using TBBDA, PBBS, TCBDA, and PCBS as new reagents is developed. Expand
Electrocatalytic and chemical assembling of N,N′-dialkylbarbituric acids and aldehydes: efficient cascade approach to the spiro-[furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6,5′-pyrimidine]-2,2′,4,4′,6′-(1′H,3H,3′H)-pentone framework
Abstract Electrocatalytic assembling of aldehydes and N,N′-dialkylbarbituric acids leads to selective and efficient formation of substitutedExpand
A fast and efficient ‘on-solvent’ cascade assembling of salicylaldehydes and dimethylbarbituric acid into 5-(1,3-dimethyl-2,4-dioxo-1,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2H-chromeno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl)-1,3-dimethylpyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-triones
Abstract A fast (15 min) and efficient cascade reaction of salicylaldehydes and 1,3-dimethylbarbituric acid in the presence of p-TsOH as a catalyst furnishes substitutedExpand