Sleep Spindles – As a Biomarker of Brain Function and Plasticity

  title={Sleep Spindles – As a Biomarker of Brain Function and Plasticity},
  author={Yuko Urakami and Andreas A. Ioannides and George K. Kostopoulos},
Spindles appear in the EEG as sinusoidal waves with frequency in the range 11 to 16 Hz. Together with K-complexes they are the hallmarks of NREM sleep and their appearance is taken as evidence of the onset of light sleep. Their specific distribution and exact frequency, changes in early and late sleep during the night. Sleep spindles are also known as “sigma waves” a term initially recommended (1961) but later discouraged by the International Fenderation of Societies for Electroencephalography… CONTINUE READING
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  • M Steriade, McCarley
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