Sufficient sleep duration is crucial for maintaining normal physiological function and has been linked to cancer risk; however, its contribution to lung cancer mortality is unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between average sleep duration in various age-periods across the adult lifecourse, and risk of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei, China. An ambidirectional cohort study was conducted in 42,422 farmers from Xuanwei, China. Participants or their surrogates were interviewed in 1992 to assess average sleep hours in the age periods of 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and ≥71 years, which were categorized as ≤7, 8 (reference), 9, and ≥10 hours/day. Vital status was followed until 2011. Sex-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer mortality in 1994-2011, adjusted for demographic, anthropometric, medical, and household characteristics. J-shaped relationships were found between average sleep duration and lung cancer mortality. The patterns were consistent across sex, age periods, and fuel usage. Compared with sleeping 8 hours/day on average, ≤7 hours/day was associated with significantly increased HRs ranging from 1.39 to 1.58 in ages ≥41 years in men, and 1.29 to 2.47 in ages ≥51 years in women. Furthermore, sleeping ≥10 hours/day was associated with significantly increased HRs ranging from 2.44 to 3.27 in ages ≥41 year in men, and 1.31 to 2.45 in ages ≤60 years in women. Greater and less than 8 hours/day of sleep in various age-periods may be associated with elevated risk of lung cancer mortality in Xuanwei, China. Cancer Prev Res; 10(6); 327-35. ©2017 AACR.