A skin test survey was conducted among 1035 children aged 7-19 years living in three cities in Vietnam. Fifteen new tuberculins, including leprosin-A, were applied; an induration of 2 mm diameter or more was considered positive. Compared to some other tropical countries, low levels of sensitisation were recorded and remarkable regional differences were found. Positivity to any tuberculins (pooled data) among non-BCG-vaccinated children was significantly lower in Hanoi (13.1%) and HoChiMinh-City [HCMC] (15.5%) than in Nha Trang (25.7%) [p = 0.001 and p = 0.012, respectively]. The proportion of non-vaccinated children responding to Tuberculin ranged from 18.4% in Hanoi to 54.5% in Nha Trang. Leprosin-A elicited a response in 14.9% of the children in Nha Trang, but in very few of those in Hanoi (4.3%) or HCMC (3.0%). Thus, of the three cities studied, significant sensitisation to both M. tuberculosis and M. leprae was demonstrable only in Nha Trang. In Hanoi most of the response was to fast-growing species whilst in HCMC and Nha Trang it was mainly to slow-growing species. These results may account in part for the observed differences in the prevalence of tuberculosis and leprosy between the north and the south of Vietnam.